Meaning of the name Yakub:
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Yakub
Gender: Male
Usage: Arabic
Yakub is said[citation needed] to have been born in what would become Mecca (founded in 2000 B.C.) at a time when 30% of original black people were "dissatisfied". He was a member of the Meccan branch of the Tribe of Shabazz. At the age of six, he discovered the law of attraction and repulsion by playing with magnets made of steel.[1] This insight led to a dastardly plan to create new people. He "saw an unlike human being, made to attract others, who could, with the knowledge of tricks and lies, rule the original black man."[1] By the age of 18 he had exhausted all knowledge in the universities of Mecca. He then discovered that the "original black man" contained both a "black germ" and a "brown germ". With 59,999 followers he went to the island of Patmos, where he established a despotic regime and set about breeding out the black traits, killed all darker babies and created a brown race after 200 years. After 600 years of this deliberate eugenics the white race was created
Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second definition to its entry for "spam": "Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users."[23]There are several popular false etymologies of the word "spam". One, promulgated by early spammers Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, is that "spamming" is what happens when one dumps a can of Spam luncheon meat into a fan blade.[citation needed] Another is the backronym stupid pointless annoying messages".[citation needed] There was also an effort to differentiate between types of spam. That which was sent indiscriminately to any e-mail address was true spam while that which was targeted to more likely prospects, although just as unsolicited, was called velveeta (after the cheese product). But this latter term didn't persist.History of Internet spamThe earliest dofoamented spam (although the term had not yet been coined[24]) was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.[21] Rather than send a separate message to each person, which was the standard practice at the time, he had an rear endistant, Carl Gartley, write a single mrear end e-mail. Reaction from the net community was fiercely negative, but the spam did generate some sales.[25][26]Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.[26] The first known electronic chain letter, pillowled Make Money Fast, was released in 1988.The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. The incident was commonly termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Defiant in the face of widespread condemnation, the attorneys claimed their detractors were hypocrites or "zealouts", claimed they had a free speech right to send unwanted commercial messages, and labeled their opponents "anti-commerce radicals." The couple wrote a controversial book enpillowled How to Make a Fortune on the Information Superhighway.[26]Within a few years, the focus of spamming (and anti-spam efforts) moved chiefly to e-mail, where it remains today.[18] Arguably, the aggressive email spamming by a number of high-profile spammers such as Sanford Wallace of Cyber Promotions in the mid-to-late 1990s contributed to making spam predominantly an email phenomenon in the public mind.[citation needed] By 2009, the majority of spam sent around the world was in the English language; spammers began using automatic translation services to send spam in other languages.[27]Trademark issuesHormel Foods Corporation, the maker of SPAM luncheon meat, does not object to the Internet use of the term "spamming". However, they did ask that the capitalized word "Spam" be reserved to refer to their product and trademark.[28] By and large, this request is obeyed in forums which discuss spam. In Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Hormel attempted to rear endert its trademark rights against SpamArrest, a software company, from using the mark "spam", since Hormel owns the trademark. In a dilution claim, Hormel argued that Spam Arrest's use of the term "spam" had endangered and damaged "substantial goodwill and good reputation" in connection with its trademarked lunch meat and related products. Hormel also rear enderts that Spam Arrest's name so closely resembles its luncheon meat that the public might become confused, or might think that Hormel endorses Spam Arrest's products.Hormel did not prevail. Attorney Derek Newman responded on behalf of Spam Arrest: "Spam has become ubiquitous throughout the world to describe unsolicited commercial e-mail. No company can claim trademark rights on a generic term." Hormel stated on its website: "Ultimately, we are trying to avoid the day when the consuming public asks, 'Why would Hormel Foods name its product after junk email?".[29]Hormel also made two attempts that were dismissed in 2005 to revoke the marks "SPAMBUSTER"[30] and Spam Cube.[31] Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann also sent SpamCop's Julian Haight a letter on August 27, 1999 requesting that he delete an objectionable image (a can of Hormel's Spam luncheon meat product in a trash can), change references to UCE spam to all lower case letters, and confirm his agreement to do so.[32]Cost-benefit analysesThe European Union's Internal Market Commission estimated in 2001 that "junk e-mail" cost Internet users 10 billion per year worldwide.[33] The California legislature found that spam cost United States organizations alone more than $13 billion in 2007, including lost productivity and the additional equipment, software, and manpower needed to combat the problem.[34] Spam's direct effects include the consumption of computer and network resources, and the cost in human time and attention of dismissing unwanted messages.[35] Large companies who are frequent spam targets utilize numerous techniques to detect and prevent spam.[36]In addition, spam has costs stemming from the kinds of spam messages sent, from the ways spammers send them, and from the arms race between spammers and those who try to stop or control spam. In addition, there are the opportunity cost of those who forgo the use of spam-afflicted systems. There are the direct costs, as well as the indirect costs borne by the victimsboth those related to the spamming itself, and to other crimes that usually accompany it, such as financial theft, idenpillowy theft, data and intellectual property theft, virus and other malware infection, child pornography, fraud, and deceptive marketing.The cost to providers of search engines is not insignificant: "The secondary consequence of spamming is that search engine indexes are inundated with useless pages, increasing the cost of each processed query".[2] The methods of spammers are likewise costly. Because spamming contravenes the vast majority of ISPs' acceptable-use policies, most spammers have for many years gone to some trouble to conceal the origins of their spam. E-mail, Usenet, and instant-message spam are often sent through insecure proxy servers belonging to unwilling third parties. Spammers frequently use false names, addresses, phone numbers, and other contact information to set up "disposable" accounts at various Internet service providers. In some cases, they have used falsified or stolen credit card numbers to pay for these accounts. This allows them to quickly move from one account to the next as each one is discovered and shut down by the host ISPs.The costs of spam also include the collateral costs of the struggle between spammers and the administrators and users of the media threatened by spamming.[37] Many users are bothered by spam because it impinges upon the amount of time they spend reading their e-mail. Many also find the content of spam frequently offensive, in that pornography is one of the most frequently advertised products. Spammers send their spam largely indiscriminately, so pornographic ads may show up in a work place e-mail inboxor a child's, the latter of which is illegal in many jurisdictions. Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in spam advertising websites that contain child pornography.[citation needed]Some spammers argue that most of these costs could potentially be alleviated by having spammers reimburse ISPs and persons for their material.[citation needed] There are three problems with this logic: first, the rate of reimbursement they could credibly budget is not nearly high enough to pay the direct costs[citation needed], second, the human cost (lost mail, lost time, and lost opportunities) is basically unrecoverable, and third, spammers often use stolen bank accounts and credit cards to finance their operations, and would conceivably do so to pay off any fines imposed.E-mail spam exemplifies a tragedy of the commons: spammers use resources (both physical and human), without bearing the entire cost of those resources. In fact, spammers commonly do not bear the cost at all. This raises the costs for everyone. In some ways spam is even a potential threat to the entire e-mail system, as operated in the past. Since e-mail is so cheap to send, a tiny number of spammers can saturate the Internet with junk mail. Although only a tiny percentage of their targets are motivated to purchase their products (or fall victim to their scams), the low cost may provide a sufficient conversion rate to keep the spamming alive. Furthermore, even though spam appears not to be economically viable as a way for a reputable company to do business, it suffices for professional spammers to convince a tiny proportion of gullible advertisers that it is viable for those spammers to stay in business. Finally, new spammers go into business every day, and the low costs allow a single spammer to do a lot of harm before finally realizing that the business is not profitable.Some companies and groups "rank" spammers; spammers who make the news are sometimes referred to by these rankings.[38][39] The secretive nature of spamming operations makes it difficult to determine how proliferated an individual spammer is, thus making the spammer hard to track, block or avoid. Also, spammers may target different networks to different extents, depending on how successful they are at attacking the target. Thus considerable resources are employed to actually measure the amount of spam generated by a single person or group. For example, victims that use common anti-spam hardware, software or services provide opportunities for such tracking. Nevertheless, such rankings should be taken with a grain of salt.General costsIn all cases listed above, including both commercial and non-commercial, "spam happens" because of a positive cost-benefit analysis result if the cost to recipients is excluded as an externality the spammer can avoid paying.Cost is the combination of Overhead: The costs and overhead of electronic spamming include bandwidth, developing or acquiring an email/wiki/blog spam tool, taking over or acquiring a host/zombie, etc. Transaction cost: The incremental cost of contacting each additional recipient once a method of spamming is constructed, multiplied by the number of recipients. (see CAPTCHA as a method of increasing transaction costs) Risks: Chance and severity of legal and/or public reactions, including damages and punitive damages Damage: Impact on the community and/or communication channels being spammed (see Newsgroup spam)Benefit is the total expected profit from spam, which may include any combination of the commercial and non-commercial reasons listed above. It is normally linear, based on the incremental benefit of reaching each additional spam recipient, combined with the conversion rate. The conversion rate for botnet-generated spam has recently been measured to be around one in 12,000,000 for pharmaceutical spam and one in 200,000 for infection sites as used by the Storm botnet.[40] They specifically say in the paper "After 26 days, and almost 350 million e-mail messages, only 28 sales resulted".In crimeSpam can be used to spread computer viruses, trojan horses or other malicious software. The objective may be idenpillowy theft, or worse (e.g., advance fee fraud). Some spam attempts to capitalize on human greed whilst other attempts to use the victims' inexperience with computer technology to trick them (e.g., phishing). On May 31, 2007, one of the world's most prolific spammers, Robert Alan Soloway, was arrested by U.S. authorities.[41] Described as one of the top ten spammers in the world, Soloway was charged with 35 criminal counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, e-mail fraud, aggravated idenpillowy theft and money laundering.[41] Prosecutors allege that Soloway used millions of "zombie" computers to distribute spam during 2003.[citation needed] This is the first case in which U.S. prosecutors used idenpillowy theft laws to prosecute a spammer for taking over someone else's Internet domain name.[citation needed]In an attempt to rear endess potential legal and technical strategies for stopping illegal spam, a study from the University of California, San Diego, and the University of California, Berkeley, Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain (PDF), cataloged three months of online spam data and researched website naming and hosting infrastructures. The study concluded that: 1) half of all spam programs have their domains and servers distributed over just 8% or fewer of the total available hosting registrars and Autonomous Systems. Overall, 80% of spam programs are distributed over just 20% of all registrars and Autonomous Systems; 2) of the 76 purchases for which the researchers received transaction information, there were only 13 distinct banks acting as credit card acquirers and only three banks provided the payment servicing for 95% of the spam-advertised goods in the study; and, 3) a financial blacklist of banking enpillowies that do business with spammers would dramatically reduce monetization of unwanted emails. Moreover, this blacklist could be updated far more rapidly than spammers could acquire new banking resources, an asymmetry favoring anti-spam efforts.[42]Political issuesSpamming remains a hot discussion topic. In 2004, the seized Porsche of an indicted spammer was advertised on the Internet;[43] this revealed the extent of the financial rewards available to those who are willing to commit duplicitous acts online. However, some of the possible means used to stop spamming may lead to other side effects, such as increased government control over the Internet, loss of privacy, barriers to free expression, and the commercialization of e-mail.[citation needed]One of the chief values favored by many long-time Internet users and experts, as well as by many members of the public, is the free exchange of ideas. Many have valued the relative anarchy of the Internet, and bridle at the idea of restrictions placed upon it.[citation needed] A common refrain from spam-fighters is that spamming itself abridges the historical freedom of the Internet, by attempting to force users to carry the costs of material which they would not choose.[citation needed]An ongoing concern expressed by parties such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union has to do with so-called "stealth blocking", a term for ISPs employing aggressive spam blocking without their users' knowledge. These groups' concern is that ISPs or technicians seeking to reduce spam-related costs may select tools which (either through error or design) also block non-spam e-mail from sites seen as "spam-friendly". Spam Prevention Early Warning System (SPEWS) is a common target of these criticisms. Few object to the existence of these tools; it is their use in filtering the mail of users who are not informed of their use which draws fire.[citation needed]Some see spam-blocking tools as a threat to free expressionand laws against spamming as an untoward precedent for regulation or taxation of e-mail and the Internet at large. Even though it is possible in some jurisdictions to treat some spam as unlawful merely by applying existing laws against tresprear end and conversion, some laws specifically targeting spam have been proposed. In 2004, United States prear ended the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 which provided ISPs with tools to combat spam. This act allowed Yahoo! to successfully sue Eric Head, reportedly one of the biggest spammers in the world, who settled the lawsuit for several thousand U.S. dollars in June 2004. But the law is criticized by many for not being effective enough. Indeed, the law was supported by some spammers and organizations which support spamming, and opposed by many in the anti-spam community. Examples of effective anti-abuse laws that respect free speech rights include those in the U.S. against unsolicited faxes and phone calls, and those in Australia and a few U.S. states against spam.[citation needed]In November 2004, Lycos Europe released a screen saver called make LOVE not SPAM which made Distributed Denial of Service attacks on the spammers themselves. It met with a large amount of controversy and the initiative ended in December 2004.[44][45][46]Anti-spam policies may also be a form of disguised censorship, a way to ban access or reference to questioning alternative forums or blogs by an inspillowution. This form of occult censorship is mainly used by private companies when they can not muzzle criticism by legal ways.[47]Court casesSee also: E-mail spam legislation by countryUnited StatesSanford Wallace and Cyber Promotions were the target of a string of lawsuits, many of which were settled out of court, up through the famous 1998 Earthlink settlement[citation needed]which put Cyber Promotions out of business. Attorney Laurence Canter was disbarred by the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1997 for sending prodigious amounts of spam advertising his immigration law practice. In 2005, Jason Smathers, a former America Online employee, pled guilty to charges of violating the CAN-SPAM Act. In 2003, he sold a list of approximately 93 million AOL subscriber e-mail addresses to Sean Dunaway who, in turn, sold the list to spammers.[48][49]In 2007, Robert Soloway lost a case in a federal court against the operator of a small Oklahoma-based Internet service provider who accused him of spamming. U.S. Judge Ralph G. Thompson granted a motion by plaintiff Robert Braver for a default judgment and permanent injunction against him. The judgment includes a statutory damages award of $10,075,000 under Oklahoma law.[50]In June 2007, two men were convicted of eight counts stemming from sending millions of e-mail spam messages that included hardcore pornographic images. Jeffrey A. Kilbride, 41, of Venice, California was sentenced to six years in prison, and James R. Schaffer, 41, of Paradise Valley, Arizona, was sentenced to 63 months. In addition, the two were fined $100,000, ordered to pay $77,500 in respillowution to AOL, and ordered to forfeit more than $1.1 million, the amount of illegal proceeds from their spamming operation.[51] The charges included conspiracy, fraud, money laundering, and transportation of obscene materials. The trial, which began on June 5, was the first to include charges under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, according to a release from the Department of Justice. The specific law that prosecutors used under the CAN-Spam Act was designed to crack down on the transmission of pornography in spam.[52]In 2005, Scott J. Filary and Donald E. Townsend of Tampa, Florida were sued by Florida Attorney General Charlie Crist for violating the Florida Electronic Mail Communications Act.[53] The two spammers were required to pay $50,000 USD to cover the costs of investigation by the state of Florida, and a $1.1 million penalty if spamming were to continue, the $50,000 was not paid, or the financial statements provided were found to be inaccurate. The spamming operation was successfully shut down.[54]Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million "Nigerian check scam." She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, last November. Fiedler shipped out $ 609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $ 1.1 million counterfeit materials. Also, the U.S. Postal Service recently intercepted counterfeit checks, lottery tickets and eBay overpayment schemes with a face value of $2.1 billion.[55][56]In a 2009 opinion, Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040, the Ninth Circuit rear endessed the standing requirements necessary for a private plaintiff to bring a civil cause of action against spam senders under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, as well as the scope of the CAN-SPAM Act's federal preemption clause.[57]United KingdomIn the first successful case of its kind, Nigel Roberts from the Channel Islands won 270 against Media Logistics UK who sent junk e-mails to his personal account.[58]In January 2007, a Sheriff Court in Scotland awarded Mr. Gordon dog 750 (the then maximum sum which could be awarded in a Small Claim action) plus expenses of 618.66, a total of 1368.66 against Transcom Internet Services Ltd.[59] for breaching anti-spam laws.[60] Transcom had been legally represented at earlier hearings but were not represented at the proof, so Gordon dog got his decree by default. It is the largest amount awarded in compensation in the United Kingdom since Roberts -v- Media Logistics case in 2005 above, but it is not known if Mr. dog ever received anything. (An image of Media Logistics' cheque is shown on Roberts' website[61] ) Both Roberts and dog are well known figures in the British Internet industry for other things. dog is currently Interim Chairman of Nominet UK (the manager of .UK and .CO.UK) while Roberts is CEO of CHANNELISLES.NET (manager of .GG and .JE).Despite the statutory tort that is created by the Regulations implementing the EC Directive, few other people have followed their example. As the Courts engage in active case management, such cases would probably now be expected to be settled by mediation and payment of nominal damages.New ZealandIn October 2008, a vast international internet spam operation run from New Zealand was cited by American authorities as one of the worlds largest, and for a time responsible for up to a third of all unwanted emails. In a statement the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) named Christchurchs Lance Atkinson as one of the principals of the operation. New Zealands Internal Affairs announced it had lodged a $200,000 claim in the High Court against Atkinson and his brother Shane Atkinson and courier Roland Smits, after raids in Christchurch. This marked the first prosecution since the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act (UEMA) was prear ended in September 2007. The FTC said it had received more than three million complaints about spam messages connected to this operation, and estimated that it may be responsible for sending billions of illegal spam messages. The US District Court froze the defendants rear endets to preserve them for consumer redress pending trial.[62] U.S. co-defendant Jody Smith forfeited more than $800,000 and faces up to five years in prison for charges to which he pled guilty.[63]BulgariaWhile most countries either outlaw or at least ignore spam, Bulgaria is the first and until now only one to legalize it. According to the Bulgarian E-Commerce act[64] (.5,6) anyone can send spam to mailboxes published as owned by a company or organization, as long as there is a "clear and straight indication that the message is unsolicited commercial email" (" ") in the message body.This made lawsuits against Bulgarian ISP's and public e-mail providers with antispam policy possible, as they are obstructing legal commerce activity and thus violate Bulgarian anpillowrust acts. While there are no such lawsuits until now, several cases of spam obstruction are currently awaiting decision in the Bulgarian Anpillowrust Commission ( ) and can end with serious fines for the ISP's in question.The law contains other dubious provisions for example, the creation of a nationwide public electronic register of email addresses that do not want to receive spam.[65] It is usually abused as the perfect source for e-mail address harvesting, because publishing invalid or incorrect information in such a register is a criminal offense in Bulgaria.Newsgroups news.admin.net-abuse.emailSee alsoPortal icon Internet portal Address munging (avoidance technique) Advance fee fraud (Nigerian spam) Anti-spam techniques Bacn E-mail fraud Idenpillowy theft Image spam Internet Troll Job scams Junk mail Junk Mail Publishing List of spammers Suppression list Malware Network Abuse Clearinghouse Phishing Scam Scad (scam ad) Social networking spam Social spam SORBS Spam Spam Lit SpamCop Spamhaus Spamigation SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) Spoetry Sporgery Virus (computer) VishingHistory Howard Carmack Make money fast Sanford Wallace Spam King Usenet Death Penalty UUnetReferencesNotes ^ The Spamhaus Project - The Definition Of Spam ^ a b Gyongyi, Zoltan; Garcia-Molina, Hector (2005). "Web spam taxonomy". Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb), 2005 in The 14th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2005) May 10, (Tue)-14 (Sat), 2005, Nippon Convention Center (Makuhari Messe), Chiba, Japan.. New York, N.Y.: ACM Press. ISBN 1-59593-046-9 ^ "?". maawg.org. ^ FileOn List Builder-Extract URL,MetaTags,Email,Phone,Fax from www-Optimized Webcrawler ^ Saul Hansell Social network launches worldwide spam campaign New York Times, September 13, 2007 ^ "Marketers need to build trust as spam hits social networks", Grace Bello, Direct Marketing News, June 1, 2012 ^ Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network, Max Planck Centre for Computer Science ^ The (Evil) Genius of Comment Spammers - Wired Magazine, March 2004 ^ "New Moon Full Movie Available Online Scam - Softpedia". Softpedia. Retrieved 8 September 2012. ^ Fabrcio Benevenuto, Tiago Rodrigues, Virglio Almeida, Jussara Almeida and Marcos Gonalves. Detecting Spammers and Content Promoters in Online Video Social Networks. In ACM SIGIR Conference, Boston, MA, USA, July 2009.[dead link]. ^ "Toy Story 3 movie scam warning". Retrieved 23 January 2012. ^ a b Joeran Beel and Bela Gipp. Academic search engine spam and google scholars resilience against it. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(3), December 2010. PDF ^ See: Advance fee fraud ^ Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report (PDF) ^ "Getting the message, at last". The Economist. 2007-12-14. ^ "RFC 2635 - DON\x27T SPEW A Set of Guidelines for Mrear end Unsolicited Mailings and Postings (spam*):". Retrieved 2010-09-29. ^ "The Origin of the word 'Spam':". Retrieved 2010-09-20. ^ a b Origin of the term "spam" to mean net abuse ^ The Origins of Spam in Star Trek chat rooms ^ Spamming? (rec.games.mud) - Google Groups USENET archive, 1990-09-26 ^ a b At 30, Spam Going Nowhere Soon - Interviews with Gary Thuerk and Joel Furr ^ Darren Waters (31 march 2008). "Spam blights e-mail 15 years on". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2010. ^ "Oxford dictionary adds Net terms" on News.com ^ Zeller, Tom (1 June 2003). "Ideas & Trends; Spamology". The New York Times. ^ Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 ^ a b c Tom Abate (May 3, 2008). "A very unhappy birthday to spam, age 30". San Francisco Chronicle. ^ Danchev, Dancho. "Spammers go multilingual, use automatic translation services." ZDNet. July 28, 2009. Retrieved on August 31, 2009. ^ "SPAM Brand and the Internet". spam.com. Retrieved 7 June 2012. ^ Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Motion for Summary Judgment, Redacted Version (PDF) ^ Hormel Foods Corpn v Antilles Landscape Investments NV (2005) EWHC 13 (Ch)[dead link] ^ "Hormel Foods Corporation v. Spam Cube, Inc". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2008-02-12. ^ Letter from Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann to SpamCop's Julian Haight ^ "Data protection: "Junk" e-mail costs internet users 10 billion a year worldwide - Commission study" ^ California business and professions code ^ Spam Cost Calculator: Calculate enterprise spam cost? ^ Shuman Ghosemajumder (18 March 2008). "Using data to help prevent fraud". Google Blog. Retrieved 12 August 2011. ^ Thank the Spammers - William R. James 2003-03-10 ^ Spamhaus' "TOP 10 spam service ISPs" ^ The 10 Worst ROKSO Spammers ^ Kanich, C.; C. Kreibich, K. Levchenko, B. Enright, G. Voelker, V. Paxson and S. Savage (2008-10-28). "Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion" (PDF). Proceedings of Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS). Alexandria, VA, USA. Retrieved 2008-11-05. ^ a b Alleged 'Seattle Spammer' arrested - CNET News.com ^ "Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain". Journalist's Resource.org. ^ timewarner.com ^ Screensaver tackles spam websites BBC News Online. 29 November 2004 ^ Anti-spam plan overwhelms sites BBC News Online. 2 December 2004 ^ Anti-spam screensaver scrapped BBC News Online. 6 December 2004 ^ See for instance the black list of the French Wikipedia encyclopedia ^ U.S. v Jason Smathers and Sean Dunaway, amended complaint, US District Court for the Southern District of New York (2003). Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "?". thesmokinggun.com. ^ Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case. (2005, February 4). CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case". CNN.com. February 5, 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2010. ^ Braver v. Newport Internet Marketing Corporation et al. -U.S. District Court - Western District of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City), 2005-02-22 ^ "Two Men Sentenced for Running International Pornographic Spamming Business". United States Department of Justice. October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-25. ^ Gaudin, Sharon, Two Men Convicted Of Spamming Pornography InformationWeek, June 26, 2007 ^ "Crist Announces First Case Under Florida Anti-Spam Law". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Crist: Judgment Ends Duo's Illegal Spam, Internet Operations". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Woman gets prison for 'Nigerian' scam". upi.com. ^ "Woman Gets Two Years for Aiding Nigerian Internet Check Scam (PC World)". yahoo.com.[dead link] ^ Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040 (9th Cir. 2009). ^ "Businessman wins e-mail spam case". BBC News. 27 December 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Gordon dog v Transcom Internet Service Ltd. ^ Article 13-Unsolicited communications ^ website ^ "Kiwi spam network was 'world's biggest'". Stuff.co.nz. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Court Orders Australia-based Leader of International Spam Network to Pay $15.15 Million ^ ^ , Sources Specter, Michael (2007-08-06). "drat Spam". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2007-08-02.Further reading Sjouwerman, Stu; Posluns, Jeffrey, "Inside the spam cartel: trade secrets from the dark side", Elsevier/Syngress; 1st edition, November 27, 2004. ISBN 978-1-932266-86-3 Brown, Bruce Cameron "How to stop e-mail spam, spyware, malware, computer viruses, and hackers from ruining your computer" Atlantic Publishing Group, 2011. ISBN 978-1-601383-03-7 Dunne, Robert "Computers and the law: an introduction to basic legal principles and their application in cyberspace" Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-521886-50-5External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Electronic spam Spamtrackers SpamWiki: a peer-reviewed spam information and analysis resource. Federal Trade Commission page with spam reduction tips and reporting Slamming Spamming Resource on Spam Why am I getting all this spam? CDT Cybertelecom:: Federal spam law and policy Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 Overview and text of the first known internet email spam. Malware City - The Spam Omelette BitDefenders weekly report on spam trends and techniques. 1 December 2009: arrest of a major spammer Anti-Spam Consumer Resources and Information[hide] v t eSpammingProtocols Email spam Address munging Bulk email software Directory Harvest Attack Joe job DNSBL DNSWL Spambot Pink contractOther Autodialer/Robocall Flyposting Junk fax Messaging Mobile phone Newsgroup Telemarketing VoIPAnti-spam Disposable email address Email authentication SORBS SpamCop Spamhaus List poisoning Bayesian spam filtering Network Abuse ClearinghouseSpamdexing Keyword stuffing Google bomb Scraper site Link farm Cloaking Doorway page URL redirection Spam blogs Sping Forum spam Blog spam Social networking spam Referrer spam Parasite hostingInternet fraud Advance-fee fraud Lottery scam Make Money Fast Phishing VishingSpam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second de
Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second definition to its entry for "spam": "Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users."[23]There are several popular false etymologies of the word "spam". One, promulgated by early spammers Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, is that "spamming" is what happens when one dumps a can of Spam luncheon meat into a fan blade.[citation needed] Another is the backronym stupid pointless annoying messages".[citation needed] There was also an effort to differentiate between types of spam. That which was sent indiscriminately to any e-mail address was true spam while that which was targeted to more likely prospects, although just as unsolicited, was called velveeta (after the cheese product). But this latter term didn't persist.History of Internet spamThe earliest dofoamented spam (although the term had not yet been coined[24]) was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.[21] Rather than send a separate message to each person, which was the standard practice at the time, he had an rear endistant, Carl Gartley, write a single mrear end e-mail. Reaction from the net community was fiercely negative, but the spam did generate some sales.[25][26]Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.[26] The first known electronic chain letter, pillowled Make Money Fast, was released in 1988.The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. The incident was commonly termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Defiant in the face of widespread condemnation, the attorneys claimed their detractors were hypocrites or "zealouts", claimed they had a free speech right to send unwanted commercial messages, and labeled their opponents "anti-commerce radicals." The couple wrote a controversial book enpillowled How to Make a Fortune on the Information Superhighway.[26]Within a few years, the focus of spamming (and anti-spam efforts) moved chiefly to e-mail, where it remains today.[18] Arguably, the aggressive email spamming by a number of high-profile spammers such as Sanford Wallace of Cyber Promotions in the mid-to-late 1990s contributed to making spam predominantly an email phenomenon in the public mind.[citation needed] By 2009, the majority of spam sent around the world was in the English language; spammers began using automatic translation services to send spam in other languages.[27]Trademark issuesHormel Foods Corporation, the maker of SPAM luncheon meat, does not object to the Internet use of the term "spamming". However, they did ask that the capitalized word "Spam" be reserved to refer to their product and trademark.[28] By and large, this request is obeyed in forums which discuss spam. In Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Hormel attempted to rear endert its trademark rights against SpamArrest, a software company, from using the mark "spam", since Hormel owns the trademark. In a dilution claim, Hormel argued that Spam Arrest's use of the term "spam" had endangered and damaged "substantial goodwill and good reputation" in connection with its trademarked lunch meat and related products. Hormel also rear enderts that Spam Arrest's name so closely resembles its luncheon meat that the public might become confused, or might think that Hormel endorses Spam Arrest's products.Hormel did not prevail. Attorney Derek Newman responded on behalf of Spam Arrest: "Spam has become ubiquitous throughout the world to describe unsolicited commercial e-mail. No company can claim trademark rights on a generic term." Hormel stated on its website: "Ultimately, we are trying to avoid the day when the consuming public asks, 'Why would Hormel Foods name its product after junk email?".[29]Hormel also made two attempts that were dismissed in 2005 to revoke the marks "SPAMBUSTER"[30] and Spam Cube.[31] Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann also sent SpamCop's Julian Haight a letter on August 27, 1999 requesting that he delete an objectionable image (a can of Hormel's Spam luncheon meat product in a trash can), change references to UCE spam to all lower case letters, and confirm his agreement to do so.[32]Cost-benefit analysesThe European Union's Internal Market Commission estimated in 2001 that "junk e-mail" cost Internet users 10 billion per year worldwide.[33] The California legislature found that spam cost United States organizations alone more than $13 billion in 2007, including lost productivity and the additional equipment, software, and manpower needed to combat the problem.[34] Spam's direct effects include the consumption of computer and network resources, and the cost in human time and attention of dismissing unwanted messages.[35] Large companies who are frequent spam targets utilize numerous techniques to detect and prevent spam.[36]In addition, spam has costs stemming from the kinds of spam messages sent, from the ways spammers send them, and from the arms race between spammers and those who try to stop or control spam. In addition, there are the opportunity cost of those who forgo the use of spam-afflicted systems. There are the direct costs, as well as the indirect costs borne by the victimsboth those related to the spamming itself, and to other crimes that usually accompany it, such as financial theft, idenpillowy theft, data and intellectual property theft, virus and other malware infection, child pornography, fraud, and deceptive marketing.The cost to providers of search engines is not insignificant: "The secondary consequence of spamming is that search engine indexes are inundated with useless pages, increasing the cost of each processed query".[2] The methods of spammers are likewise costly. Because spamming contravenes the vast majority of ISPs' acceptable-use policies, most spammers have for many years gone to some trouble to conceal the origins of their spam. E-mail, Usenet, and instant-message spam are often sent through insecure proxy servers belonging to unwilling third parties. Spammers frequently use false names, addresses, phone numbers, and other contact information to set up "disposable" accounts at various Internet service providers. In some cases, they have used falsified or stolen credit card numbers to pay for these accounts. This allows them to quickly move from one account to the next as each one is discovered and shut down by the host ISPs.The costs of spam also include the collateral costs of the struggle between spammers and the administrators and users of the media threatened by spamming.[37] Many users are bothered by spam because it impinges upon the amount of time they spend reading their e-mail. Many also find the content of spam frequently offensive, in that pornography is one of the most frequently advertised products. Spammers send their spam largely indiscriminately, so pornographic ads may show up in a work place e-mail inboxor a child's, the latter of which is illegal in many jurisdictions. Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in spam advertising websites that contain child pornography.[citation needed]Some spammers argue that most of these costs could potentially be alleviated by having spammers reimburse ISPs and persons for their material.[citation needed] There are three problems with this logic: first, the rate of reimbursement they could credibly budget is not nearly high enough to pay the direct costs[citation needed], second, the human cost (lost mail, lost time, and lost opportunities) is basically unrecoverable, and third, spammers often use stolen bank accounts and credit cards to finance their operations, and would conceivably do so to pay off any fines imposed.E-mail spam exemplifies a tragedy of the commons: spammers use resources (both physical and human), without bearing the entire cost of those resources. In fact, spammers commonly do not bear the cost at all. This raises the costs for everyone. In some ways spam is even a potential threat to the entire e-mail system, as operated in the past. Since e-mail is so cheap to send, a tiny number of spammers can saturate the Internet with junk mail. Although only a tiny percentage of their targets are motivated to purchase their products (or fall victim to their scams), the low cost may provide a sufficient conversion rate to keep the spamming alive. Furthermore, even though spam appears not to be economically viable as a way for a reputable company to do business, it suffices for professional spammers to convince a tiny proportion of gullible advertisers that it is viable for those spammers to stay in business. Finally, new spammers go into business every day, and the low costs allow a single spammer to do a lot of harm before finally realizing that the business is not profitable.Some companies and groups "rank" spammers; spammers who make the news are sometimes referred to by these rankings.[38][39] The secretive nature of spamming operations makes it difficult to determine how proliferated an individual spammer is, thus making the spammer hard to track, block or avoid. Also, spammers may target different networks to different extents, depending on how successful they are at attacking the target. Thus considerable resources are employed to actually measure the amount of spam generated by a single person or group. For example, victims that use common anti-spam hardware, software or services provide opportunities for such tracking. Nevertheless, such rankings should be taken with a grain of salt.General costsIn all cases listed above, including both commercial and non-commercial, "spam happens" because of a positive cost-benefit analysis result if the cost to recipients is excluded as an externality the spammer can avoid paying.Cost is the combination of Overhead: The costs and overhead of electronic spamming include bandwidth, developing or acquiring an email/wiki/blog spam tool, taking over or acquiring a host/zombie, etc. Transaction cost: The incremental cost of contacting each additional recipient once a method of spamming is constructed, multiplied by the number of recipients. (see CAPTCHA as a method of increasing transaction costs) Risks: Chance and severity of legal and/or public reactions, including damages and punitive damages Damage: Impact on the community and/or communication channels being spammed (see Newsgroup spam)Benefit is the total expected profit from spam, which may include any combination of the commercial and non-commercial reasons listed above. It is normally linear, based on the incremental benefit of reaching each additional spam recipient, combined with the conversion rate. The conversion rate for botnet-generated spam has recently been measured to be around one in 12,000,000 for pharmaceutical spam and one in 200,000 for infection sites as used by the Storm botnet.[40] They specifically say in the paper "After 26 days, and almost 350 million e-mail messages, only 28 sales resulted".In crimeSpam can be used to spread computer viruses, trojan horses or other malicious software. The objective may be idenpillowy theft, or worse (e.g., advance fee fraud). Some spam attempts to capitalize on human greed whilst other attempts to use the victims' inexperience with computer technology to trick them (e.g., phishing). On May 31, 2007, one of the world's most prolific spammers, Robert Alan Soloway, was arrested by U.S. authorities.[41] Described as one of the top ten spammers in the world, Soloway was charged with 35 criminal counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, e-mail fraud, aggravated idenpillowy theft and money laundering.[41] Prosecutors allege that Soloway used millions of "zombie" computers to distribute spam during 2003.[citation needed] This is the first case in which U.S. prosecutors used idenpillowy theft laws to prosecute a spammer for taking over someone else's Internet domain name.[citation needed]In an attempt to rear endess potential legal and technical strategies for stopping illegal spam, a study from the University of California, San Diego, and the University of California, Berkeley, Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain (PDF), cataloged three months of online spam data and researched website naming and hosting infrastructures. The study concluded that: 1) half of all spam programs have their domains and servers distributed over just 8% or fewer of the total available hosting registrars and Autonomous Systems. Overall, 80% of spam programs are distributed over just 20% of all registrars and Autonomous Systems; 2) of the 76 purchases for which the researchers received transaction information, there were only 13 distinct banks acting as credit card acquirers and only three banks provided the payment servicing for 95% of the spam-advertised goods in the study; and, 3) a financial blacklist of banking enpillowies that do business with spammers would dramatically reduce monetization of unwanted emails. Moreover, this blacklist could be updated far more rapidly than spammers could acquire new banking resources, an asymmetry favoring anti-spam efforts.[42]Political issuesSpamming remains a hot discussion topic. In 2004, the seized Porsche of an indicted spammer was advertised on the Internet;[43] this revealed the extent of the financial rewards available to those who are willing to commit duplicitous acts online. However, some of the possible means used to stop spamming may lead to other side effects, such as increased government control over the Internet, loss of privacy, barriers to free expression, and the commercialization of e-mail.[citation needed]One of the chief values favored by many long-time Internet users and experts, as well as by many members of the public, is the free exchange of ideas. Many have valued the relative anarchy of the Internet, and bridle at the idea of restrictions placed upon it.[citation needed] A common refrain from spam-fighters is that spamming itself abridges the historical freedom of the Internet, by attempting to force users to carry the costs of material which they would not choose.[citation needed]An ongoing concern expressed by parties such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union has to do with so-called "stealth blocking", a term for ISPs employing aggressive spam blocking without their users' knowledge. These groups' concern is that ISPs or technicians seeking to reduce spam-related costs may select tools which (either through error or design) also block non-spam e-mail from sites seen as "spam-friendly". Spam Prevention Early Warning System (SPEWS) is a common target of these criticisms. Few object to the existence of these tools; it is their use in filtering the mail of users who are not informed of their use which draws fire.[citation needed]Some see spam-blocking tools as a threat to free expressionand laws against spamming as an untoward precedent for regulation or taxation of e-mail and the Internet at large. Even though it is possible in some jurisdictions to treat some spam as unlawful merely by applying existing laws against tresprear end and conversion, some laws specifically targeting spam have been proposed. In 2004, United States prear ended the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 which provided ISPs with tools to combat spam. This act allowed Yahoo! to successfully sue Eric Head, reportedly one of the biggest spammers in the world, who settled the lawsuit for several thousand U.S. dollars in June 2004. But the law is criticized by many for not being effective enough. Indeed, the law was supported by some spammers and organizations which support spamming, and opposed by many in the anti-spam community. Examples of effective anti-abuse laws that respect free speech rights include those in the U.S. against unsolicited faxes and phone calls, and those in Australia and a few U.S. states against spam.[citation needed]In November 2004, Lycos Europe released a screen saver called make LOVE not SPAM which made Distributed Denial of Service attacks on the spammers themselves. It met with a large amount of controversy and the initiative ended in December 2004.[44][45][46]Anti-spam policies may also be a form of disguised censorship, a way to ban access or reference to questioning alternative forums or blogs by an inspillowution. This form of occult censorship is mainly used by private companies when they can not muzzle criticism by legal ways.[47]Court casesSee also: E-mail spam legislation by countryUnited StatesSanford Wallace and Cyber Promotions were the target of a string of lawsuits, many of which were settled out of court, up through the famous 1998 Earthlink settlement[citation needed]which put Cyber Promotions out of business. Attorney Laurence Canter was disbarred by the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1997 for sending prodigious amounts of spam advertising his immigration law practice. In 2005, Jason Smathers, a former America Online employee, pled guilty to charges of violating the CAN-SPAM Act. In 2003, he sold a list of approximately 93 million AOL subscriber e-mail addresses to Sean Dunaway who, in turn, sold the list to spammers.[48][49]In 2007, Robert Soloway lost a case in a federal court against the operator of a small Oklahoma-based Internet service provider who accused him of spamming. U.S. Judge Ralph G. Thompson granted a motion by plaintiff Robert Braver for a default judgment and permanent injunction against him. The judgment includes a statutory damages award of $10,075,000 under Oklahoma law.[50]In June 2007, two men were convicted of eight counts stemming from sending millions of e-mail spam messages that included hardcore pornographic images. Jeffrey A. Kilbride, 41, of Venice, California was sentenced to six years in prison, and James R. Schaffer, 41, of Paradise Valley, Arizona, was sentenced to 63 months. In addition, the two were fined $100,000, ordered to pay $77,500 in respillowution to AOL, and ordered to forfeit more than $1.1 million, the amount of illegal proceeds from their spamming operation.[51] The charges included conspiracy, fraud, money laundering, and transportation of obscene materials. The trial, which began on June 5, was the first to include charges under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, according to a release from the Department of Justice. The specific law that prosecutors used under the CAN-Spam Act was designed to crack down on the transmission of pornography in spam.[52]In 2005, Scott J. Filary and Donald E. Townsend of Tampa, Florida were sued by Florida Attorney General Charlie Crist for violating the Florida Electronic Mail Communications Act.[53] The two spammers were required to pay $50,000 USD to cover the costs of investigation by the state of Florida, and a $1.1 million penalty if spamming were to continue, the $50,000 was not paid, or the financial statements provided were found to be inaccurate. The spamming operation was successfully shut down.[54]Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million "Nigerian check scam." She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, last November. Fiedler shipped out $ 609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $ 1.1 million counterfeit materials. Also, the U.S. Postal Service recently intercepted counterfeit checks, lottery tickets and eBay overpayment schemes with a face value of $2.1 billion.[55][56]In a 2009 opinion, Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040, the Ninth Circuit rear endessed the standing requirements necessary for a private plaintiff to bring a civil cause of action against spam senders under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, as well as the scope of the CAN-SPAM Act's federal preemption clause.[57]United KingdomIn the first successful case of its kind, Nigel Roberts from the Channel Islands won 270 against Media Logistics UK who sent junk e-mails to his personal account.[58]In January 2007, a Sheriff Court in Scotland awarded Mr. Gordon dog 750 (the then maximum sum which could be awarded in a Small Claim action) plus expenses of 618.66, a total of 1368.66 against Transcom Internet Services Ltd.[59] for breaching anti-spam laws.[60] Transcom had been legally represented at earlier hearings but were not represented at the proof, so Gordon dog got his decree by default. It is the largest amount awarded in compensation in the United Kingdom since Roberts -v- Media Logistics case in 2005 above, but it is not known if Mr. dog ever received anything. (An image of Media Logistics' cheque is shown on Roberts' website[61] ) Both Roberts and dog are well known figures in the British Internet industry for other things. dog is currently Interim Chairman of Nominet UK (the manager of .UK and .CO.UK) while Roberts is CEO of CHANNELISLES.NET (manager of .GG and .JE).Despite the statutory tort that is created by the Regulations implementing the EC Directive, few other people have followed their example. As the Courts engage in active case management, such cases would probably now be expected to be settled by mediation and payment of nominal damages.New ZealandIn October 2008, a vast international internet spam operation run from New Zealand was cited by American authorities as one of the worlds largest, and for a time responsible for up to a third of all unwanted emails. In a statement the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) named Christchurchs Lance Atkinson as one of the principals of the operation. New Zealands Internal Affairs announced it had lodged a $200,000 claim in the High Court against Atkinson and his brother Shane Atkinson and courier Roland Smits, after raids in Christchurch. This marked the first prosecution since the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act (UEMA) was prear ended in September 2007. The FTC said it had received more than three million complaints about spam messages connected to this operation, and estimated that it may be responsible for sending billions of illegal spam messages. The US District Court froze the defendants rear endets to preserve them for consumer redress pending trial.[62] U.S. co-defendant Jody Smith forfeited more than $800,000 and faces up to five years in prison for charges to which he pled guilty.[63]BulgariaWhile most countries either outlaw or at least ignore spam, Bulgaria is the first and until now only one to legalize it. According to the Bulgarian E-Commerce act[64] (.5,6) anyone can send spam to mailboxes published as owned by a company or organization, as long as there is a "clear and straight indication that the message is unsolicited commercial email" (" ") in the message body.This made lawsuits against Bulgarian ISP's and public e-mail providers with antispam policy possible, as they are obstructing legal commerce activity and thus violate Bulgarian anpillowrust acts. While there are no such lawsuits until now, several cases of spam obstruction are currently awaiting decision in the Bulgarian Anpillowrust Commission ( ) and can end with serious fines for the ISP's in question.The law contains other dubious provisions for example, the creation of a nationwide public electronic register of email addresses that do not want to receive spam.[65] It is usually abused as the perfect source for e-mail address harvesting, because publishing invalid or incorrect information in such a register is a criminal offense in Bulgaria.Newsgroups news.admin.net-abuse.emailSee alsoPortal icon Internet portal Address munging (avoidance technique) Advance fee fraud (Nigerian spam) Anti-spam techniques Bacn E-mail fraud Idenpillowy theft Image spam Internet Troll Job scams Junk mail Junk Mail Publishing List of spammers Suppression list Malware Network Abuse Clearinghouse Phishing Scam Scad (scam ad) Social networking spam Social spam SORBS Spam Spam Lit SpamCop Spamhaus Spamigation SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) Spoetry Sporgery Virus (computer) VishingHistory Howard Carmack Make money fast Sanford Wallace Spam King Usenet Death Penalty UUnetReferencesNotes ^ The Spamhaus Project - The Definition Of Spam ^ a b Gyongyi, Zoltan; Garcia-Molina, Hector (2005). "Web spam taxonomy". Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb), 2005 in The 14th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2005) May 10, (Tue)-14 (Sat), 2005, Nippon Convention Center (Makuhari Messe), Chiba, Japan.. New York, N.Y.: ACM Press. ISBN 1-59593-046-9 ^ "?". maawg.org. ^ FileOn List Builder-Extract URL,MetaTags,Email,Phone,Fax from www-Optimized Webcrawler ^ Saul Hansell Social network launches worldwide spam campaign New York Times, September 13, 2007 ^ "Marketers need to build trust as spam hits social networks", Grace Bello, Direct Marketing News, June 1, 2012 ^ Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network, Max Planck Centre for Computer Science ^ The (Evil) Genius of Comment Spammers - Wired Magazine, March 2004 ^ "New Moon Full Movie Available Online Scam - Softpedia". Softpedia. Retrieved 8 September 2012. ^ Fabrcio Benevenuto, Tiago Rodrigues, Virglio Almeida, Jussara Almeida and Marcos Gonalves. Detecting Spammers and Content Promoters in Online Video Social Networks. In ACM SIGIR Conference, Boston, MA, USA, July 2009.[dead link]. ^ "Toy Story 3 movie scam warning". Retrieved 23 January 2012. ^ a b Joeran Beel and Bela Gipp. Academic search engine spam and google scholars resilience against it. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(3), December 2010. PDF ^ See: Advance fee fraud ^ Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report (PDF) ^ "Getting the message, at last". The Economist. 2007-12-14. ^ "RFC 2635 - DON\x27T SPEW A Set of Guidelines for Mrear end Unsolicited Mailings and Postings (spam*):". Retrieved 2010-09-29. ^ "The Origin of the word 'Spam':". Retrieved 2010-09-20. ^ a b Origin of the term "spam" to mean net abuse ^ The Origins of Spam in Star Trek chat rooms ^ Spamming? (rec.games.mud) - Google Groups USENET archive, 1990-09-26 ^ a b At 30, Spam Going Nowhere Soon - Interviews with Gary Thuerk and Joel Furr ^ Darren Waters (31 march 2008). "Spam blights e-mail 15 years on". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2010. ^ "Oxford dictionary adds Net terms" on News.com ^ Zeller, Tom (1 June 2003). "Ideas & Trends; Spamology". The New York Times. ^ Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 ^ a b c Tom Abate (May 3, 2008). "A very unhappy birthday to spam, age 30". San Francisco Chronicle. ^ Danchev, Dancho. "Spammers go multilingual, use automatic translation services." ZDNet. July 28, 2009. Retrieved on August 31, 2009. ^ "SPAM Brand and the Internet". spam.com. Retrieved 7 June 2012. ^ Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Motion for Summary Judgment, Redacted Version (PDF) ^ Hormel Foods Corpn v Antilles Landscape Investments NV (2005) EWHC 13 (Ch)[dead link] ^ "Hormel Foods Corporation v. Spam Cube, Inc". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2008-02-12. ^ Letter from Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann to SpamCop's Julian Haight ^ "Data protection: "Junk" e-mail costs internet users 10 billion a year worldwide - Commission study" ^ California business and professions code ^ Spam Cost Calculator: Calculate enterprise spam cost? ^ Shuman Ghosemajumder (18 March 2008). "Using data to help prevent fraud". Google Blog. Retrieved 12 August 2011. ^ Thank the Spammers - William R. James 2003-03-10 ^ Spamhaus' "TOP 10 spam service ISPs" ^ The 10 Worst ROKSO Spammers ^ Kanich, C.; C. Kreibich, K. Levchenko, B. Enright, G. Voelker, V. Paxson and S. Savage (2008-10-28). "Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion" (PDF). Proceedings of Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS). Alexandria, VA, USA. Retrieved 2008-11-05. ^ a b Alleged 'Seattle Spammer' arrested - CNET News.com ^ "Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain". Journalist's Resource.org. ^ timewarner.com ^ Screensaver tackles spam websites BBC News Online. 29 November 2004 ^ Anti-spam plan overwhelms sites BBC News Online. 2 December 2004 ^ Anti-spam screensaver scrapped BBC News Online. 6 December 2004 ^ See for instance the black list of the French Wikipedia encyclopedia ^ U.S. v Jason Smathers and Sean Dunaway, amended complaint, US District Court for the Southern District of New York (2003). Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "?". thesmokinggun.com. ^ Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case. (2005, February 4). CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case". CNN.com. February 5, 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2010. ^ Braver v. Newport Internet Marketing Corporation et al. -U.S. District Court - Western District of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City), 2005-02-22 ^ "Two Men Sentenced for Running International Pornographic Spamming Business". United States Department of Justice. October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-25. ^ Gaudin, Sharon, Two Men Convicted Of Spamming Pornography InformationWeek, June 26, 2007 ^ "Crist Announces First Case Under Florida Anti-Spam Law". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Crist: Judgment Ends Duo's Illegal Spam, Internet Operations". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Woman gets prison for 'Nigerian' scam". upi.com. ^ "Woman Gets Two Years for Aiding Nigerian Internet Check Scam (PC World)". yahoo.com.[dead link] ^ Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040 (9th Cir. 2009). ^ "Businessman wins e-mail spam case". BBC News. 27 December 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Gordon dog v Transcom Internet Service Ltd. ^ Article 13-Unsolicited communications ^ website ^ "Kiwi spam network was 'world's biggest'". Stuff.co.nz. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Court Orders Australia-based Leader of International Spam Network to Pay $15.15 Million ^ ^ , Sources Specter, Michael (2007-08-06). "drat Spam". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2007-08-02.Further reading Sjouwerman, Stu; Posluns, Jeffrey, "Inside the spam cartel: trade secrets from the dark side", Elsevier/Syngress; 1st edition, November 27, 2004. ISBN 978-1-932266-86-3 Brown, Bruce Cameron "How to stop e-mail spam, spyware, malware, computer viruses, and hackers from ruining your computer" Atlantic Publishing Group, 2011. ISBN 978-1-601383-03-7 Dunne, Robert "Computers and the law: an introduction to basic legal principles and their application in cyberspace" Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-521886-50-5External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Electronic spam Spamtrackers SpamWiki: a peer-reviewed spam information and analysis resource. Federal Trade Commission page with spam reduction tips and reporting Slamming Spamming Resource on Spam Why am I getting all this spam? CDT Cybertelecom:: Federal spam law and policy Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 Overview and text of the first known internet email spam. Malware City - The Spam Omelette BitDefenders weekly report on spam trends and techniques. 1 December 2009: arrest of a major spammer Anti-Spam Consumer Resources and Information[hide] v t eSpammingProtocols Email spam Address munging Bulk email software Directory Harvest Attack Joe job DNSBL DNSWL Spambot Pink contractOther Autodialer/Robocall Flyposting Junk fax Messaging Mobile phone Newsgroup Telemarketing VoIPAnti-spam Disposable email address Email authentication SORBS SpamCop Spamhaus List poisoning Bayesian spam filtering Network Abuse ClearinghouseSpamdexing Keyword stuffing Google bomb Scraper site Link farm Cloaking Doorway page URL redirection Spam blogs Sping Forum spam Blog spam Social networking spam Referrer spam Parasite hostingInternet fraud Advance-fee fraud Lottery scam Make Money Fast Phishing VishingSpam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second de
Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second definition to its entry for "spam": "Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users."[23]There are several popular false etymologies of the word "spam". One, promulgated by early spammers Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, is that "spamming" is what happens when one dumps a can of Spam luncheon meat into a fan blade.[citation needed] Another is the backronym stupid pointless annoying messages".[citation needed] There was also an effort to differentiate between types of spam. That which was sent indiscriminately to any e-mail address was true spam while that which was targeted to more likely prospects, although just as unsolicited, was called velveeta (after the cheese product). But this latter term didn't persist.History of Internet spamThe earliest dofoamented spam (although the term had not yet been coined[24]) was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.[21] Rather than send a separate message to each person, which was the standard practice at the time, he had an rear endistant, Carl Gartley, write a single mrear end e-mail. Reaction from the net community was fiercely negative, but the spam did generate some sales.[25][26]Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.[26] The first known electronic chain letter, pillowled Make Money Fast, was released in 1988.The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. The incident was commonly termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Defiant in the face of widespread condemnation, the attorneys claimed their detractors were hypocrites or "zealouts", claimed they had a free speech right to send unwanted commercial messages, and labeled their opponents "anti-commerce radicals." The couple wrote a controversial book enpillowled How to Make a Fortune on the Information Superhighway.[26]Within a few years, the focus of spamming (and anti-spam efforts) moved chiefly to e-mail, where it remains today.[18] Arguably, the aggressive email spamming by a number of high-profile spammers such as Sanford Wallace of Cyber Promotions in the mid-to-late 1990s contributed to making spam predominantly an email phenomenon in the public mind.[citation needed] By 2009, the majority of spam sent around the world was in the English language; spammers began using automatic translation services to send spam in other languages.[27]Trademark issuesHormel Foods Corporation, the maker of SPAM luncheon meat, does not object to the Internet use of the term "spamming". However, they did ask that the capitalized word "Spam" be reserved to refer to their product and trademark.[28] By and large, this request is obeyed in forums which discuss spam. In Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Hormel attempted to rear endert its trademark rights against SpamArrest, a software company, from using the mark "spam", since Hormel owns the trademark. In a dilution claim, Hormel argued that Spam Arrest's use of the term "spam" had endangered and damaged "substantial goodwill and good reputation" in connection with its trademarked lunch meat and related products. Hormel also rear enderts that Spam Arrest's name so closely resembles its luncheon meat that the public might become confused, or might think that Hormel endorses Spam Arrest's products.Hormel did not prevail. Attorney Derek Newman responded on behalf of Spam Arrest: "Spam has become ubiquitous throughout the world to describe unsolicited commercial e-mail. No company can claim trademark rights on a generic term." Hormel stated on its website: "Ultimately, we are trying to avoid the day when the consuming public asks, 'Why would Hormel Foods name its product after junk email?".[29]Hormel also made two attempts that were dismissed in 2005 to revoke the marks "SPAMBUSTER"[30] and Spam Cube.[31] Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann also sent SpamCop's Julian Haight a letter on August 27, 1999 requesting that he delete an objectionable image (a can of Hormel's Spam luncheon meat product in a trash can), change references to UCE spam to all lower case letters, and confirm his agreement to do so.[32]Cost-benefit analysesThe European Union's Internal Market Commission estimated in 2001 that "junk e-mail" cost Internet users 10 billion per year worldwide.[33] The California legislature found that spam cost United States organizations alone more than $13 billion in 2007, including lost productivity and the additional equipment, software, and manpower needed to combat the problem.[34] Spam's direct effects include the consumption of computer and network resources, and the cost in human time and attention of dismissing unwanted messages.[35] Large companies who are frequent spam targets utilize numerous techniques to detect and prevent spam.[36]In addition, spam has costs stemming from the kinds of spam messages sent, from the ways spammers send them, and from the arms race between spammers and those who try to stop or control spam. In addition, there are the opportunity cost of those who forgo the use of spam-afflicted systems. There are the direct costs, as well as the indirect costs borne by the victimsboth those related to the spamming itself, and to other crimes that usually accompany it, such as financial theft, idenpillowy theft, data and intellectual property theft, virus and other malware infection, child pornography, fraud, and deceptive marketing.The cost to providers of search engines is not insignificant: "The secondary consequence of spamming is that search engine indexes are inundated with useless pages, increasing the cost of each processed query".[2] The methods of spammers are likewise costly. Because spamming contravenes the vast majority of ISPs' acceptable-use policies, most spammers have for many years gone to some trouble to conceal the origins of their spam. E-mail, Usenet, and instant-message spam are often sent through insecure proxy servers belonging to unwilling third parties. Spammers frequently use false names, addresses, phone numbers, and other contact information to set up "disposable" accounts at various Internet service providers. In some cases, they have used falsified or stolen credit card numbers to pay for these accounts. This allows them to quickly move from one account to the next as each one is discovered and shut down by the host ISPs.The costs of spam also include the collateral costs of the struggle between spammers and the administrators and users of the media threatened by spamming.[37] Many users are bothered by spam because it impinges upon the amount of time they spend reading their e-mail. Many also find the content of spam frequently offensive, in that pornography is one of the most frequently advertised products. Spammers send their spam largely indiscriminately, so pornographic ads may show up in a work place e-mail inboxor a child's, the latter of which is illegal in many jurisdictions. Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in spam advertising websites that contain child pornography.[citation needed]Some spammers argue that most of these costs could potentially be alleviated by having spammers reimburse ISPs and persons for their material.[citation needed] There are three problems with this logic: first, the rate of reimbursement they could credibly budget is not nearly high enough to pay the direct costs[citation needed], second, the human cost (lost mail, lost time, and lost opportunities) is basically unrecoverable, and third, spammers often use stolen bank accounts and credit cards to finance their operations, and would conceivably do so to pay off any fines imposed.E-mail spam exemplifies a tragedy of the commons: spammers use resources (both physical and human), without bearing the entire cost of those resources. In fact, spammers commonly do not bear the cost at all. This raises the costs for everyone. In some ways spam is even a potential threat to the entire e-mail system, as operated in the past. Since e-mail is so cheap to send, a tiny number of spammers can saturate the Internet with junk mail. Although only a tiny percentage of their targets are motivated to purchase their products (or fall victim to their scams), the low cost may provide a sufficient conversion rate to keep the spamming alive. Furthermore, even though spam appears not to be economically viable as a way for a reputable company to do business, it suffices for professional spammers to convince a tiny proportion of gullible advertisers that it is viable for those spammers to stay in business. Finally, new spammers go into business every day, and the low costs allow a single spammer to do a lot of harm before finally realizing that the business is not profitable.Some companies and groups "rank" spammers; spammers who make the news are sometimes referred to by these rankings.[38][39] The secretive nature of spamming operations makes it difficult to determine how proliferated an individual spammer is, thus making the spammer hard to track, block or avoid. Also, spammers may target different networks to different extents, depending on how successful they are at attacking the target. Thus considerable resources are employed to actually measure the amount of spam generated by a single person or group. For example, victims that use common anti-spam hardware, software or services provide opportunities for such tracking. Nevertheless, such rankings should be taken with a grain of salt.General costsIn all cases listed above, including both commercial and non-commercial, "spam happens" because of a positive cost-benefit analysis result if the cost to recipients is excluded as an externality the spammer can avoid paying.Cost is the combination of Overhead: The costs and overhead of electronic spamming include bandwidth, developing or acquiring an email/wiki/blog spam tool, taking over or acquiring a host/zombie, etc. Transaction cost: The incremental cost of contacting each additional recipient once a method of spamming is constructed, multiplied by the number of recipients. (see CAPTCHA as a method of increasing transaction costs) Risks: Chance and severity of legal and/or public reactions, including damages and punitive damages Damage: Impact on the community and/or communication channels being spammed (see Newsgroup spam)Benefit is the total expected profit from spam, which may include any combination of the commercial and non-commercial reasons listed above. It is normally linear, based on the incremental benefit of reaching each additional spam recipient, combined with the conversion rate. The conversion rate for botnet-generated spam has recently been measured to be around one in 12,000,000 for pharmaceutical spam and one in 200,000 for infection sites as used by the Storm botnet.[40] They specifically say in the paper "After 26 days, and almost 350 million e-mail messages, only 28 sales resulted".In crimeSpam can be used to spread computer viruses, trojan horses or other malicious software. The objective may be idenpillowy theft, or worse (e.g., advance fee fraud). Some spam attempts to capitalize on human greed whilst other attempts to use the victims' inexperience with computer technology to trick them (e.g., phishing). On May 31, 2007, one of the world's most prolific spammers, Robert Alan Soloway, was arrested by U.S. authorities.[41] Described as one of the top ten spammers in the world, Soloway was charged with 35 criminal counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, e-mail fraud, aggravated idenpillowy theft and money laundering.[41] Prosecutors allege that Soloway used millions of "zombie" computers to distribute spam during 2003.[citation needed] This is the first case in which U.S. prosecutors used idenpillowy theft laws to prosecute a spammer for taking over someone else's Internet domain name.[citation needed]In an attempt to rear endess potential legal and technical strategies for stopping illegal spam, a study from the University of California, San Diego, and the University of California, Berkeley, Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain (PDF), cataloged three months of online spam data and researched website naming and hosting infrastructures. The study concluded that: 1) half of all spam programs have their domains and servers distributed over just 8% or fewer of the total available hosting registrars and Autonomous Systems. Overall, 80% of spam programs are distributed over just 20% of all registrars and Autonomous Systems; 2) of the 76 purchases for which the researchers received transaction information, there were only 13 distinct banks acting as credit card acquirers and only three banks provided the payment servicing for 95% of the spam-advertised goods in the study; and, 3) a financial blacklist of banking enpillowies that do business with spammers would dramatically reduce monetization of unwanted emails. Moreover, this blacklist could be updated far more rapidly than spammers could acquire new banking resources, an asymmetry favoring anti-spam efforts.[42]Political issuesSpamming remains a hot discussion topic. In 2004, the seized Porsche of an indicted spammer was advertised on the Internet;[43] this revealed the extent of the financial rewards available to those who are willing to commit duplicitous acts online. However, some of the possible means used to stop spamming may lead to other side effects, such as increased government control over the Internet, loss of privacy, barriers to free expression, and the commercialization of e-mail.[citation needed]One of the chief values favored by many long-time Internet users and experts, as well as by many members of the public, is the free exchange of ideas. Many have valued the relative anarchy of the Internet, and bridle at the idea of restrictions placed upon it.[citation needed] A common refrain from spam-fighters is that spamming itself abridges the historical freedom of the Internet, by attempting to force users to carry the costs of material which they would not choose.[citation needed]An ongoing concern expressed by parties such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union has to do with so-called "stealth blocking", a term for ISPs employing aggressive spam blocking without their users' knowledge. These groups' concern is that ISPs or technicians seeking to reduce spam-related costs may select tools which (either through error or design) also block non-spam e-mail from sites seen as "spam-friendly". Spam Prevention Early Warning System (SPEWS) is a common target of these criticisms. Few object to the existence of these tools; it is their use in filtering the mail of users who are not informed of their use which draws fire.[citation needed]Some see spam-blocking tools as a threat to free expressionand laws against spamming as an untoward precedent for regulation or taxation of e-mail and the Internet at large. Even though it is possible in some jurisdictions to treat some spam as unlawful merely by applying existing laws against tresprear end and conversion, some laws specifically targeting spam have been proposed. In 2004, United States prear ended the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 which provided ISPs with tools to combat spam. This act allowed Yahoo! to successfully sue Eric Head, reportedly one of the biggest spammers in the world, who settled the lawsuit for several thousand U.S. dollars in June 2004. But the law is criticized by many for not being effective enough. Indeed, the law was supported by some spammers and organizations which support spamming, and opposed by many in the anti-spam community. Examples of effective anti-abuse laws that respect free speech rights include those in the U.S. against unsolicited faxes and phone calls, and those in Australia and a few U.S. states against spam.[citation needed]In November 2004, Lycos Europe released a screen saver called make LOVE not SPAM which made Distributed Denial of Service attacks on the spammers themselves. It met with a large amount of controversy and the initiative ended in December 2004.[44][45][46]Anti-spam policies may also be a form of disguised censorship, a way to ban access or reference to questioning alternative forums or blogs by an inspillowution. This form of occult censorship is mainly used by private companies when they can not muzzle criticism by legal ways.[47]Court casesSee also: E-mail spam legislation by countryUnited StatesSanford Wallace and Cyber Promotions were the target of a string of lawsuits, many of which were settled out of court, up through the famous 1998 Earthlink settlement[citation needed]which put Cyber Promotions out of business. Attorney Laurence Canter was disbarred by the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1997 for sending prodigious amounts of spam advertising his immigration law practice. In 2005, Jason Smathers, a former America Online employee, pled guilty to charges of violating the CAN-SPAM Act. In 2003, he sold a list of approximately 93 million AOL subscriber e-mail addresses to Sean Dunaway who, in turn, sold the list to spammers.[48][49]In 2007, Robert Soloway lost a case in a federal court against the operator of a small Oklahoma-based Internet service provider who accused him of spamming. U.S. Judge Ralph G. Thompson granted a motion by plaintiff Robert Braver for a default judgment and permanent injunction against him. The judgment includes a statutory damages award of $10,075,000 under Oklahoma law.[50]In June 2007, two men were convicted of eight counts stemming from sending millions of e-mail spam messages that included hardcore pornographic images. Jeffrey A. Kilbride, 41, of Venice, California was sentenced to six years in prison, and James R. Schaffer, 41, of Paradise Valley, Arizona, was sentenced to 63 months. In addition, the two were fined $100,000, ordered to pay $77,500 in respillowution to AOL, and ordered to forfeit more than $1.1 million, the amount of illegal proceeds from their spamming operation.[51] The charges included conspiracy, fraud, money laundering, and transportation of obscene materials. The trial, which began on June 5, was the first to include charges under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, according to a release from the Department of Justice. The specific law that prosecutors used under the CAN-Spam Act was designed to crack down on the transmission of pornography in spam.[52]In 2005, Scott J. Filary and Donald E. Townsend of Tampa, Florida were sued by Florida Attorney General Charlie Crist for violating the Florida Electronic Mail Communications Act.[53] The two spammers were required to pay $50,000 USD to cover the costs of investigation by the state of Florida, and a $1.1 million penalty if spamming were to continue, the $50,000 was not paid, or the financial statements provided were found to be inaccurate. The spamming operation was successfully shut down.[54]Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million "Nigerian check scam." She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, last November. Fiedler shipped out $ 609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $ 1.1 million counterfeit materials. Also, the U.S. Postal Service recently intercepted counterfeit checks, lottery tickets and eBay overpayment schemes with a face value of $2.1 billion.[55][56]In a 2009 opinion, Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040, the Ninth Circuit rear endessed the standing requirements necessary for a private plaintiff to bring a civil cause of action against spam senders under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, as well as the scope of the CAN-SPAM Act's federal preemption clause.[57]United KingdomIn the first successful case of its kind, Nigel Roberts from the Channel Islands won 270 against Media Logistics UK who sent junk e-mails to his personal account.[58]In January 2007, a Sheriff Court in Scotland awarded Mr. Gordon dog 750 (the then maximum sum which could be awarded in a Small Claim action) plus expenses of 618.66, a total of 1368.66 against Transcom Internet Services Ltd.[59] for breaching anti-spam laws.[60] Transcom had been legally represented at earlier hearings but were not represented at the proof, so Gordon dog got his decree by default. It is the largest amount awarded in compensation in the United Kingdom since Roberts -v- Media Logistics case in 2005 above, but it is not known if Mr. dog ever received anything. (An image of Media Logistics' cheque is shown on Roberts' website[61] ) Both Roberts and dog are well known figures in the British Internet industry for other things. dog is currently Interim Chairman of Nominet UK (the manager of .UK and .CO.UK) while Roberts is CEO of CHANNELISLES.NET (manager of .GG and .JE).Despite the statutory tort that is created by the Regulations implementing the EC Directive, few other people have followed their example. As the Courts engage in active case management, such cases would probably now be expected to be settled by mediation and payment of nominal damages.New ZealandIn October 2008, a vast international internet spam operation run from New Zealand was cited by American authorities as one of the worlds largest, and for a time responsible for up to a third of all unwanted emails. In a statement the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) named Christchurchs Lance Atkinson as one of the principals of the operation. New Zealands Internal Affairs announced it had lodged a $200,000 claim in the High Court against Atkinson and his brother Shane Atkinson and courier Roland Smits, after raids in Christchurch. This marked the first prosecution since the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act (UEMA) was prear ended in September 2007. The FTC said it had received more than three million complaints about spam messages connected to this operation, and estimated that it may be responsible for sending billions of illegal spam messages. The US District Court froze the defendants rear endets to preserve them for consumer redress pending trial.[62] U.S. co-defendant Jody Smith forfeited more than $800,000 and faces up to five years in prison for charges to which he pled guilty.[63]BulgariaWhile most countries either outlaw or at least ignore spam, Bulgaria is the first and until now only one to legalize it. According to the Bulgarian E-Commerce act[64] (.5,6) anyone can send spam to mailboxes published as owned by a company or organization, as long as there is a "clear and straight indication that the message is unsolicited commercial email" (" ") in the message body.This made lawsuits against Bulgarian ISP's and public e-mail providers with antispam policy possible, as they are obstructing legal commerce activity and thus violate Bulgarian anpillowrust acts. While there are no such lawsuits until now, several cases of spam obstruction are currently awaiting decision in the Bulgarian Anpillowrust Commission ( ) and can end with serious fines for the ISP's in question.The law contains other dubious provisions for example, the creation of a nationwide public electronic register of email addresses that do not want to receive spam.[65] It is usually abused as the perfect source for e-mail address harvesting, because publishing invalid or incorrect information in such a register is a criminal offense in Bulgaria.Newsgroups news.admin.net-abuse.emailSee alsoPortal icon Internet portal Address munging (avoidance technique) Advance fee fraud (Nigerian spam) Anti-spam techniques Bacn E-mail fraud Idenpillowy theft Image spam Internet Troll Job scams Junk mail Junk Mail Publishing List of spammers Suppression list Malware Network Abuse Clearinghouse Phishing Scam Scad (scam ad) Social networking spam Social spam SORBS Spam Spam Lit SpamCop Spamhaus Spamigation SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) Spoetry Sporgery Virus (computer) VishingHistory Howard Carmack Make money fast Sanford Wallace Spam King Usenet Death Penalty UUnetReferencesNotes ^ The Spamhaus Project - The Definition Of Spam ^ a b Gyongyi, Zoltan; Garcia-Molina, Hector (2005). "Web spam taxonomy". Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb), 2005 in The 14th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2005) May 10, (Tue)-14 (Sat), 2005, Nippon Convention Center (Makuhari Messe), Chiba, Japan.. New York, N.Y.: ACM Press. ISBN 1-59593-046-9 ^ "?". maawg.org. ^ FileOn List Builder-Extract URL,MetaTags,Email,Phone,Fax from www-Optimized Webcrawler ^ Saul Hansell Social network launches worldwide spam campaign New York Times, September 13, 2007 ^ "Marketers need to build trust as spam hits social networks", Grace Bello, Direct Marketing News, June 1, 2012 ^ Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network, Max Planck Centre for Computer Science ^ The (Evil) Genius of Comment Spammers - Wired Magazine, March 2004 ^ "New Moon Full Movie Available Online Scam - Softpedia". Softpedia. Retrieved 8 September 2012. ^ Fabrcio Benevenuto, Tiago Rodrigues, Virglio Almeida, Jussara Almeida and Marcos Gonalves. Detecting Spammers and Content Promoters in Online Video Social Networks. In ACM SIGIR Conference, Boston, MA, USA, July 2009.[dead link]. ^ "Toy Story 3 movie scam warning". Retrieved 23 January 2012. ^ a b Joeran Beel and Bela Gipp. Academic search engine spam and google scholars resilience against it. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(3), December 2010. PDF ^ See: Advance fee fraud ^ Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report (PDF) ^ "Getting the message, at last". The Economist. 2007-12-14. ^ "RFC 2635 - DON\x27T SPEW A Set of Guidelines for Mrear end Unsolicited Mailings and Postings (spam*):". Retrieved 2010-09-29. ^ "The Origin of the word 'Spam':". Retrieved 2010-09-20. ^ a b Origin of the term "spam" to mean net abuse ^ The Origins of Spam in Star Trek chat rooms ^ Spamming? (rec.games.mud) - Google Groups USENET archive, 1990-09-26 ^ a b At 30, Spam Going Nowhere Soon - Interviews with Gary Thuerk and Joel Furr ^ Darren Waters (31 march 2008). "Spam blights e-mail 15 years on". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2010. ^ "Oxford dictionary adds Net terms" on News.com ^ Zeller, Tom (1 June 2003). "Ideas & Trends; Spamology". The New York Times. ^ Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 ^ a b c Tom Abate (May 3, 2008). "A very unhappy birthday to spam, age 30". San Francisco Chronicle. ^ Danchev, Dancho. "Spammers go multilingual, use automatic translation services." ZDNet. July 28, 2009. Retrieved on August 31, 2009. ^ "SPAM Brand and the Internet". spam.com. Retrieved 7 June 2012. ^ Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Motion for Summary Judgment, Redacted Version (PDF) ^ Hormel Foods Corpn v Antilles Landscape Investments NV (2005) EWHC 13 (Ch)[dead link] ^ "Hormel Foods Corporation v. Spam Cube, Inc". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2008-02-12. ^ Letter from Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann to SpamCop's Julian Haight ^ "Data protection: "Junk" e-mail costs internet users 10 billion a year worldwide - Commission study" ^ California business and professions code ^ Spam Cost Calculator: Calculate enterprise spam cost? ^ Shuman Ghosemajumder (18 March 2008). "Using data to help prevent fraud". Google Blog. Retrieved 12 August 2011. ^ Thank the Spammers - William R. James 2003-03-10 ^ Spamhaus' "TOP 10 spam service ISPs" ^ The 10 Worst ROKSO Spammers ^ Kanich, C.; C. Kreibich, K. Levchenko, B. Enright, G. Voelker, V. Paxson and S. Savage (2008-10-28). "Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion" (PDF). Proceedings of Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS). Alexandria, VA, USA. Retrieved 2008-11-05. ^ a b Alleged 'Seattle Spammer' arrested - CNET News.com ^ "Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain". Journalist's Resource.org. ^ timewarner.com ^ Screensaver tackles spam websites BBC News Online. 29 November 2004 ^ Anti-spam plan overwhelms sites BBC News Online. 2 December 2004 ^ Anti-spam screensaver scrapped BBC News Online. 6 December 2004 ^ See for instance the black list of the French Wikipedia encyclopedia ^ U.S. v Jason Smathers and Sean Dunaway, amended complaint, US District Court for the Southern District of New York (2003). Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "?". thesmokinggun.com. ^ Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case. (2005, February 4). CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case". CNN.com. February 5, 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2010. ^ Braver v. Newport Internet Marketing Corporation et al. -U.S. District Court - Western District of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City), 2005-02-22 ^ "Two Men Sentenced for Running International Pornographic Spamming Business". United States Department of Justice. October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-25. ^ Gaudin, Sharon, Two Men Convicted Of Spamming Pornography InformationWeek, June 26, 2007 ^ "Crist Announces First Case Under Florida Anti-Spam Law". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Crist: Judgment Ends Duo's Illegal Spam, Internet Operations". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Woman gets prison for 'Nigerian' scam". upi.com. ^ "Woman Gets Two Years for Aiding Nigerian Internet Check Scam (PC World)". yahoo.com.[dead link] ^ Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040 (9th Cir. 2009). ^ "Businessman wins e-mail spam case". BBC News. 27 December 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Gordon dog v Transcom Internet Service Ltd. ^ Article 13-Unsolicited communications ^ website ^ "Kiwi spam network was 'world's biggest'". Stuff.co.nz. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Court Orders Australia-based Leader of International Spam Network to Pay $15.15 Million ^ ^ , Sources Specter, Michael (2007-08-06). "drat Spam". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2007-08-02.Further reading Sjouwerman, Stu; Posluns, Jeffrey, "Inside the spam cartel: trade secrets from the dark side", Elsevier/Syngress; 1st edition, November 27, 2004. ISBN 978-1-932266-86-3 Brown, Bruce Cameron "How to stop e-mail spam, spyware, malware, computer viruses, and hackers from ruining your computer" Atlantic Publishing Group, 2011. ISBN 978-1-601383-03-7 Dunne, Robert "Computers and the law: an introduction to basic legal principles and their application in cyberspace" Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-521886-50-5External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Electronic spam Spamtrackers SpamWiki: a peer-reviewed spam information and analysis resource. Federal Trade Commission page with spam reduction tips and reporting Slamming Spamming Resource on Spam Why am I getting all this spam? CDT Cybertelecom:: Federal spam law and policy Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 Overview and text of the first known internet email spam. Malware City - The Spam Omelette BitDefenders weekly report on spam trends and techniques. 1 December 2009: arrest of a major spammer Anti-Spam Consumer Resources and Information[hide] v t eSpammingProtocols Email spam Address munging Bulk email software Directory Harvest Attack Joe job DNSBL DNSWL Spambot Pink contractOther Autodialer/Robocall Flyposting Junk fax Messaging Mobile phone Newsgroup Telemarketing VoIPAnti-spam Disposable email address Email authentication SORBS SpamCop Spamhaus List poisoning Bayesian spam filtering Network Abuse ClearinghouseSpamdexing Keyword stuffing Google bomb Scraper site Link farm Cloaking Doorway page URL redirection Spam blogs Sping Forum spam Blog spam Social networking spam Referrer spam Parasite hostingInternet fraud Advance-fee fraud Lottery scam Make Money Fast Phishing VishingSpam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second de
Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second definition to its entry for "spam": "Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users."[23]There are several popular false etymologies of the word "spam". One, promulgated by early spammers Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, is that "spamming" is what happens when one dumps a can of Spam luncheon meat into a fan blade.[citation needed] Another is the backronym stupid pointless annoying messages".[citation needed] There was also an effort to differentiate between types of spam. That which was sent indiscriminately to any e-mail address was true spam while that which was targeted to more likely prospects, although just as unsolicited, was called velveeta (after the cheese product). But this latter term didn't persist.History of Internet spamThe earliest dofoamented spam (although the term had not yet been coined[24]) was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.[21] Rather than send a separate message to each person, which was the standard practice at the time, he had an rear endistant, Carl Gartley, write a single mrear end e-mail. Reaction from the net community was fiercely negative, but the spam did generate some sales.[25][26]Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.[26] The first known electronic chain letter, pillowled Make Money Fast, was released in 1988.The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. The incident was commonly termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Defiant in the face of widespread condemnation, the attorneys claimed their detractors were hypocrites or "zealouts", claimed they had a free speech right to send unwanted commercial messages, and labeled their opponents "anti-commerce radicals." The couple wrote a controversial book enpillowled How to Make a Fortune on the Information Superhighway.[26]Within a few years, the focus of spamming (and anti-spam efforts) moved chiefly to e-mail, where it remains today.[18] Arguably, the aggressive email spamming by a number of high-profile spammers such as Sanford Wallace of Cyber Promotions in the mid-to-late 1990s contributed to making spam predominantly an email phenomenon in the public mind.[citation needed] By 2009, the majority of spam sent around the world was in the English language; spammers began using automatic translation services to send spam in other languages.[27]Trademark issuesHormel Foods Corporation, the maker of SPAM luncheon meat, does not object to the Internet use of the term "spamming". However, they did ask that the capitalized word "Spam" be reserved to refer to their product and trademark.[28] By and large, this request is obeyed in forums which discuss spam. In Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Hormel attempted to rear endert its trademark rights against SpamArrest, a software company, from using the mark "spam", since Hormel owns the trademark. In a dilution claim, Hormel argued that Spam Arrest's use of the term "spam" had endangered and damaged "substantial goodwill and good reputation" in connection with its trademarked lunch meat and related products. Hormel also rear enderts that Spam Arrest's name so closely resembles its luncheon meat that the public might become confused, or might think that Hormel endorses Spam Arrest's products.Hormel did not prevail. Attorney Derek Newman responded on behalf of Spam Arrest: "Spam has become ubiquitous throughout the world to describe unsolicited commercial e-mail. No company can claim trademark rights on a generic term." Hormel stated on its website: "Ultimately, we are trying to avoid the day when the consuming public asks, 'Why would Hormel Foods name its product after junk email?".[29]Hormel also made two attempts that were dismissed in 2005 to revoke the marks "SPAMBUSTER"[30] and Spam Cube.[31] Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann also sent SpamCop's Julian Haight a letter on August 27, 1999 requesting that he delete an objectionable image (a can of Hormel's Spam luncheon meat product in a trash can), change references to UCE spam to all lower case letters, and confirm his agreement to do so.[32]Cost-benefit analysesThe European Union's Internal Market Commission estimated in 2001 that "junk e-mail" cost Internet users 10 billion per year worldwide.[33] The California legislature found that spam cost United States organizations alone more than $13 billion in 2007, including lost productivity and the additional equipment, software, and manpower needed to combat the problem.[34] Spam's direct effects include the consumption of computer and network resources, and the cost in human time and attention of dismissing unwanted messages.[35] Large companies who are frequent spam targets utilize numerous techniques to detect and prevent spam.[36]In addition, spam has costs stemming from the kinds of spam messages sent, from the ways spammers send them, and from the arms race between spammers and those who try to stop or control spam. In addition, there are the opportunity cost of those who forgo the use of spam-afflicted systems. There are the direct costs, as well as the indirect costs borne by the victimsboth those related to the spamming itself, and to other crimes that usually accompany it, such as financial theft, idenpillowy theft, data and intellectual property theft, virus and other malware infection, child pornography, fraud, and deceptive marketing.The cost to providers of search engines is not insignificant: "The secondary consequence of spamming is that search engine indexes are inundated with useless pages, increasing the cost of each processed query".[2] The methods of spammers are likewise costly. Because spamming contravenes the vast majority of ISPs' acceptable-use policies, most spammers have for many years gone to some trouble to conceal the origins of their spam. E-mail, Usenet, and instant-message spam are often sent through insecure proxy servers belonging to unwilling third parties. Spammers frequently use false names, addresses, phone numbers, and other contact information to set up "disposable" accounts at various Internet service providers. In some cases, they have used falsified or stolen credit card numbers to pay for these accounts. This allows them to quickly move from one account to the next as each one is discovered and shut down by the host ISPs.The costs of spam also include the collateral costs of the struggle between spammers and the administrators and users of the media threatened by spamming.[37] Many users are bothered by spam because it impinges upon the amount of time they spend reading their e-mail. Many also find the content of spam frequently offensive, in that pornography is one of the most frequently advertised products. Spammers send their spam largely indiscriminately, so pornographic ads may show up in a work place e-mail inboxor a child's, the latter of which is illegal in many jurisdictions. Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in spam advertising websites that contain child pornography.[citation needed]Some spammers argue that most of these costs could potentially be alleviated by having spammers reimburse ISPs and persons for their material.[citation needed] There are three problems with this logic: first, the rate of reimbursement they could credibly budget is not nearly high enough to pay the direct costs[citation needed], second, the human cost (lost mail, lost time, and lost opportunities) is basically unrecoverable, and third, spammers often use stolen bank accounts and credit cards to finance their operations, and would conceivably do so to pay off any fines imposed.E-mail spam exemplifies a tragedy of the commons: spammers use resources (both physical and human), without bearing the entire cost of those resources. In fact, spammers commonly do not bear the cost at all. This raises the costs for everyone. In some ways spam is even a potential threat to the entire e-mail system, as operated in the past. Since e-mail is so cheap to send, a tiny number of spammers can saturate the Internet with junk mail. Although only a tiny percentage of their targets are motivated to purchase their products (or fall victim to their scams), the low cost may provide a sufficient conversion rate to keep the spamming alive. Furthermore, even though spam appears not to be economically viable as a way for a reputable company to do business, it suffices for professional spammers to convince a tiny proportion of gullible advertisers that it is viable for those spammers to stay in business. Finally, new spammers go into business every day, and the low costs allow a single spammer to do a lot of harm before finally realizing that the business is not profitable.Some companies and groups "rank" spammers; spammers who make the news are sometimes referred to by these rankings.[38][39] The secretive nature of spamming operations makes it difficult to determine how proliferated an individual spammer is, thus making the spammer hard to track, block or avoid. Also, spammers may target different networks to different extents, depending on how successful they are at attacking the target. Thus considerable resources are employed to actually measure the amount of spam generated by a single person or group. For example, victims that use common anti-spam hardware, software or services provide opportunities for such tracking. Nevertheless, such rankings should be taken with a grain of salt.General costsIn all cases listed above, including both commercial and non-commercial, "spam happens" because of a positive cost-benefit analysis result if the cost to recipients is excluded as an externality the spammer can avoid paying.Cost is the combination of Overhead: The costs and overhead of electronic spamming include bandwidth, developing or acquiring an email/wiki/blog spam tool, taking over or acquiring a host/zombie, etc. Transaction cost: The incremental cost of contacting each additional recipient once a method of spamming is constructed, multiplied by the number of recipients. (see CAPTCHA as a method of increasing transaction costs) Risks: Chance and severity of legal and/or public reactions, including damages and punitive damages Damage: Impact on the community and/or communication channels being spammed (see Newsgroup spam)Benefit is the total expected profit from spam, which may include any combination of the commercial and non-commercial reasons listed above. It is normally linear, based on the incremental benefit of reaching each additional spam recipient, combined with the conversion rate. The conversion rate for botnet-generated spam has recently been measured to be around one in 12,000,000 for pharmaceutical spam and one in 200,000 for infection sites as used by the Storm botnet.[40] They specifically say in the paper "After 26 days, and almost 350 million e-mail messages, only 28 sales resulted".In crimeSpam can be used to spread computer viruses, trojan horses or other malicious software. The objective may be idenpillowy theft, or worse (e.g., advance fee fraud). Some spam attempts to capitalize on human greed whilst other attempts to use the victims' inexperience with computer technology to trick them (e.g., phishing). On May 31, 2007, one of the world's most prolific spammers, Robert Alan Soloway, was arrested by U.S. authorities.[41] Described as one of the top ten spammers in the world, Soloway was charged with 35 criminal counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, e-mail fraud, aggravated idenpillowy theft and money laundering.[41] Prosecutors allege that Soloway used millions of "zombie" computers to distribute spam during 2003.[citation needed] This is the first case in which U.S. prosecutors used idenpillowy theft laws to prosecute a spammer for taking over someone else's Internet domain name.[citation needed]In an attempt to rear endess potential legal and technical strategies for stopping illegal spam, a study from the University of California, San Diego, and the University of California, Berkeley, Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain (PDF), cataloged three months of online spam data and researched website naming and hosting infrastructures. The study concluded that: 1) half of all spam programs have their domains and servers distributed over just 8% or fewer of the total available hosting registrars and Autonomous Systems. Overall, 80% of spam programs are distributed over just 20% of all registrars and Autonomous Systems; 2) of the 76 purchases for which the researchers received transaction information, there were only 13 distinct banks acting as credit card acquirers and only three banks provided the payment servicing for 95% of the spam-advertised goods in the study; and, 3) a financial blacklist of banking enpillowies that do business with spammers would dramatically reduce monetization of unwanted emails. Moreover, this blacklist could be updated far more rapidly than spammers could acquire new banking resources, an asymmetry favoring anti-spam efforts.[42]Political issuesSpamming remains a hot discussion topic. In 2004, the seized Porsche of an indicted spammer was advertised on the Internet;[43] this revealed the extent of the financial rewards available to those who are willing to commit duplicitous acts online. However, some of the possible means used to stop spamming may lead to other side effects, such as increased government control over the Internet, loss of privacy, barriers to free expression, and the commercialization of e-mail.[citation needed]One of the chief values favored by many long-time Internet users and experts, as well as by many members of the public, is the free exchange of ideas. Many have valued the relative anarchy of the Internet, and bridle at the idea of restrictions placed upon it.[citation needed] A common refrain from spam-fighters is that spamming itself abridges the historical freedom of the Internet, by attempting to force users to carry the costs of material which they would not choose.[citation needed]An ongoing concern expressed by parties such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union has to do with so-called "stealth blocking", a term for ISPs employing aggressive spam blocking without their users' knowledge. These groups' concern is that ISPs or technicians seeking to reduce spam-related costs may select tools which (either through error or design) also block non-spam e-mail from sites seen as "spam-friendly". Spam Prevention Early Warning System (SPEWS) is a common target of these criticisms. Few object to the existence of these tools; it is their use in filtering the mail of users who are not informed of their use which draws fire.[citation needed]Some see spam-blocking tools as a threat to free expressionand laws against spamming as an untoward precedent for regulation or taxation of e-mail and the Internet at large. Even though it is possible in some jurisdictions to treat some spam as unlawful merely by applying existing laws against tresprear end and conversion, some laws specifically targeting spam have been proposed. In 2004, United States prear ended the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 which provided ISPs with tools to combat spam. This act allowed Yahoo! to successfully sue Eric Head, reportedly one of the biggest spammers in the world, who settled the lawsuit for several thousand U.S. dollars in June 2004. But the law is criticized by many for not being effective enough. Indeed, the law was supported by some spammers and organizations which support spamming, and opposed by many in the anti-spam community. Examples of effective anti-abuse laws that respect free speech rights include those in the U.S. against unsolicited faxes and phone calls, and those in Australia and a few U.S. states against spam.[citation needed]In November 2004, Lycos Europe released a screen saver called make LOVE not SPAM which made Distributed Denial of Service attacks on the spammers themselves. It met with a large amount of controversy and the initiative ended in December 2004.[44][45][46]Anti-spam policies may also be a form of disguised censorship, a way to ban access or reference to questioning alternative forums or blogs by an inspillowution. This form of occult censorship is mainly used by private companies when they can not muzzle criticism by legal ways.[47]Court casesSee also: E-mail spam legislation by countryUnited StatesSanford Wallace and Cyber Promotions were the target of a string of lawsuits, many of which were settled out of court, up through the famous 1998 Earthlink settlement[citation needed]which put Cyber Promotions out of business. Attorney Laurence Canter was disbarred by the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1997 for sending prodigious amounts of spam advertising his immigration law practice. In 2005, Jason Smathers, a former America Online employee, pled guilty to charges of violating the CAN-SPAM Act. In 2003, he sold a list of approximately 93 million AOL subscriber e-mail addresses to Sean Dunaway who, in turn, sold the list to spammers.[48][49]In 2007, Robert Soloway lost a case in a federal court against the operator of a small Oklahoma-based Internet service provider who accused him of spamming. U.S. Judge Ralph G. Thompson granted a motion by plaintiff Robert Braver for a default judgment and permanent injunction against him. The judgment includes a statutory damages award of $10,075,000 under Oklahoma law.[50]In June 2007, two men were convicted of eight counts stemming from sending millions of e-mail spam messages that included hardcore pornographic images. Jeffrey A. Kilbride, 41, of Venice, California was sentenced to six years in prison, and James R. Schaffer, 41, of Paradise Valley, Arizona, was sentenced to 63 months. In addition, the two were fined $100,000, ordered to pay $77,500 in respillowution to AOL, and ordered to forfeit more than $1.1 million, the amount of illegal proceeds from their spamming operation.[51] The charges included conspiracy, fraud, money laundering, and transportation of obscene materials. The trial, which began on June 5, was the first to include charges under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, according to a release from the Department of Justice. The specific law that prosecutors used under the CAN-Spam Act was designed to crack down on the transmission of pornography in spam.[52]In 2005, Scott J. Filary and Donald E. Townsend of Tampa, Florida were sued by Florida Attorney General Charlie Crist for violating the Florida Electronic Mail Communications Act.[53] The two spammers were required to pay $50,000 USD to cover the costs of investigation by the state of Florida, and a $1.1 million penalty if spamming were to continue, the $50,000 was not paid, or the financial statements provided were found to be inaccurate. The spamming operation was successfully shut down.[54]Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million "Nigerian check scam." She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, last November. Fiedler shipped out $ 609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $ 1.1 million counterfeit materials. Also, the U.S. Postal Service recently intercepted counterfeit checks, lottery tickets and eBay overpayment schemes with a face value of $2.1 billion.[55][56]In a 2009 opinion, Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040, the Ninth Circuit rear endessed the standing requirements necessary for a private plaintiff to bring a civil cause of action against spam senders under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, as well as the scope of the CAN-SPAM Act's federal preemption clause.[57]United KingdomIn the first successful case of its kind, Nigel Roberts from the Channel Islands won 270 against Media Logistics UK who sent junk e-mails to his personal account.[58]In January 2007, a Sheriff Court in Scotland awarded Mr. Gordon dog 750 (the then maximum sum which could be awarded in a Small Claim action) plus expenses of 618.66, a total of 1368.66 against Transcom Internet Services Ltd.[59] for breaching anti-spam laws.[60] Transcom had been legally represented at earlier hearings but were not represented at the proof, so Gordon dog got his decree by default. It is the largest amount awarded in compensation in the United Kingdom since Roberts -v- Media Logistics case in 2005 above, but it is not known if Mr. dog ever received anything. (An image of Media Logistics' cheque is shown on Roberts' website[61] ) Both Roberts and dog are well known figures in the British Internet industry for other things. dog is currently Interim Chairman of Nominet UK (the manager of .UK and .CO.UK) while Roberts is CEO of CHANNELISLES.NET (manager of .GG and .JE).Despite the statutory tort that is created by the Regulations implementing the EC Directive, few other people have followed their example. As the Courts engage in active case management, such cases would probably now be expected to be settled by mediation and payment of nominal damages.New ZealandIn October 2008, a vast international internet spam operation run from New Zealand was cited by American authorities as one of the worlds largest, and for a time responsible for up to a third of all unwanted emails. In a statement the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) named Christchurchs Lance Atkinson as one of the principals of the operation. New Zealands Internal Affairs announced it had lodged a $200,000 claim in the High Court against Atkinson and his brother Shane Atkinson and courier Roland Smits, after raids in Christchurch. This marked the first prosecution since the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act (UEMA) was prear ended in September 2007. The FTC said it had received more than three million complaints about spam messages connected to this operation, and estimated that it may be responsible for sending billions of illegal spam messages. The US District Court froze the defendants rear endets to preserve them for consumer redress pending trial.[62] U.S. co-defendant Jody Smith forfeited more than $800,000 and faces up to five years in prison for charges to which he pled guilty.[63]BulgariaWhile most countries either outlaw or at least ignore spam, Bulgaria is the first and until now only one to legalize it. According to the Bulgarian E-Commerce act[64] (.5,6) anyone can send spam to mailboxes published as owned by a company or organization, as long as there is a "clear and straight indication that the message is unsolicited commercial email" (" ") in the message body.This made lawsuits against Bulgarian ISP's and public e-mail providers with antispam policy possible, as they are obstructing legal commerce activity and thus violate Bulgarian anpillowrust acts. While there are no such lawsuits until now, several cases of spam obstruction are currently awaiting decision in the Bulgarian Anpillowrust Commission ( ) and can end with serious fines for the ISP's in question.The law contains other dubious provisions for example, the creation of a nationwide public electronic register of email addresses that do not want to receive spam.[65] It is usually abused as the perfect source for e-mail address harvesting, because publishing invalid or incorrect information in such a register is a criminal offense in Bulgaria.Newsgroups news.admin.net-abuse.emailSee alsoPortal icon Internet portal Address munging (avoidance technique) Advance fee fraud (Nigerian spam) Anti-spam techniques Bacn E-mail fraud Idenpillowy theft Image spam Internet Troll Job scams Junk mail Junk Mail Publishing List of spammers Suppression list Malware Network Abuse Clearinghouse Phishing Scam Scad (scam ad) Social networking spam Social spam SORBS Spam Spam Lit SpamCop Spamhaus Spamigation SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) Spoetry Sporgery Virus (computer) VishingHistory Howard Carmack Make money fast Sanford Wallace Spam King Usenet Death Penalty UUnetReferencesNotes ^ The Spamhaus Project - The Definition Of Spam ^ a b Gyongyi, Zoltan; Garcia-Molina, Hector (2005). "Web spam taxonomy". Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb), 2005 in The 14th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2005) May 10, (Tue)-14 (Sat), 2005, Nippon Convention Center (Makuhari Messe), Chiba, Japan.. New York, N.Y.: ACM Press. ISBN 1-59593-046-9 ^ "?". maawg.org. ^ FileOn List Builder-Extract URL,MetaTags,Email,Phone,Fax from www-Optimized Webcrawler ^ Saul Hansell Social network launches worldwide spam campaign New York Times, September 13, 2007 ^ "Marketers need to build trust as spam hits social networks", Grace Bello, Direct Marketing News, June 1, 2012 ^ Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network, Max Planck Centre for Computer Science ^ The (Evil) Genius of Comment Spammers - Wired Magazine, March 2004 ^ "New Moon Full Movie Available Online Scam - Softpedia". Softpedia. Retrieved 8 September 2012. ^ Fabrcio Benevenuto, Tiago Rodrigues, Virglio Almeida, Jussara Almeida and Marcos Gonalves. Detecting Spammers and Content Promoters in Online Video Social Networks. In ACM SIGIR Conference, Boston, MA, USA, July 2009.[dead link]. ^ "Toy Story 3 movie scam warning". Retrieved 23 January 2012. ^ a b Joeran Beel and Bela Gipp. Academic search engine spam and google scholars resilience against it. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(3), December 2010. PDF ^ See: Advance fee fraud ^ Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report (PDF) ^ "Getting the message, at last". The Economist. 2007-12-14. ^ "RFC 2635 - DON\x27T SPEW A Set of Guidelines for Mrear end Unsolicited Mailings and Postings (spam*):". Retrieved 2010-09-29. ^ "The Origin of the word 'Spam':". Retrieved 2010-09-20. ^ a b Origin of the term "spam" to mean net abuse ^ The Origins of Spam in Star Trek chat rooms ^ Spamming? (rec.games.mud) - Google Groups USENET archive, 1990-09-26 ^ a b At 30, Spam Going Nowhere Soon - Interviews with Gary Thuerk and Joel Furr ^ Darren Waters (31 march 2008). "Spam blights e-mail 15 years on". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2010. ^ "Oxford dictionary adds Net terms" on News.com ^ Zeller, Tom (1 June 2003). "Ideas & Trends; Spamology". The New York Times. ^ Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 ^ a b c Tom Abate (May 3, 2008). "A very unhappy birthday to spam, age 30". San Francisco Chronicle. ^ Danchev, Dancho. "Spammers go multilingual, use automatic translation services." ZDNet. July 28, 2009. Retrieved on August 31, 2009. ^ "SPAM Brand and the Internet". spam.com. Retrieved 7 June 2012. ^ Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Motion for Summary Judgment, Redacted Version (PDF) ^ Hormel Foods Corpn v Antilles Landscape Investments NV (2005) EWHC 13 (Ch)[dead link] ^ "Hormel Foods Corporation v. Spam Cube, Inc". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2008-02-12. ^ Letter from Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann to SpamCop's Julian Haight ^ "Data protection: "Junk" e-mail costs internet users 10 billion a year worldwide - Commission study" ^ California business and professions code ^ Spam Cost Calculator: Calculate enterprise spam cost? ^ Shuman Ghosemajumder (18 March 2008). "Using data to help prevent fraud". Google Blog. Retrieved 12 August 2011. ^ Thank the Spammers - William R. James 2003-03-10 ^ Spamhaus' "TOP 10 spam service ISPs" ^ The 10 Worst ROKSO Spammers ^ Kanich, C.; C. Kreibich, K. Levchenko, B. Enright, G. Voelker, V. Paxson and S. Savage (2008-10-28). "Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion" (PDF). Proceedings of Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS). Alexandria, VA, USA. Retrieved 2008-11-05. ^ a b Alleged 'Seattle Spammer' arrested - CNET News.com ^ "Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain". Journalist's Resource.org. ^ timewarner.com ^ Screensaver tackles spam websites BBC News Online. 29 November 2004 ^ Anti-spam plan overwhelms sites BBC News Online. 2 December 2004 ^ Anti-spam screensaver scrapped BBC News Online. 6 December 2004 ^ See for instance the black list of the French Wikipedia encyclopedia ^ U.S. v Jason Smathers and Sean Dunaway, amended complaint, US District Court for the Southern District of New York (2003). Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "?". thesmokinggun.com. ^ Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case. (2005, February 4). CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case". CNN.com. February 5, 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2010. ^ Braver v. Newport Internet Marketing Corporation et al. -U.S. District Court - Western District of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City), 2005-02-22 ^ "Two Men Sentenced for Running International Pornographic Spamming Business". United States Department of Justice. October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-25. ^ Gaudin, Sharon, Two Men Convicted Of Spamming Pornography InformationWeek, June 26, 2007 ^ "Crist Announces First Case Under Florida Anti-Spam Law". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Crist: Judgment Ends Duo's Illegal Spam, Internet Operations". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Woman gets prison for 'Nigerian' scam". upi.com. ^ "Woman Gets Two Years for Aiding Nigerian Internet Check Scam (PC World)". yahoo.com.[dead link] ^ Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040 (9th Cir. 2009). ^ "Businessman wins e-mail spam case". BBC News. 27 December 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Gordon dog v Transcom Internet Service Ltd. ^ Article 13-Unsolicited communications ^ website ^ "Kiwi spam network was 'world's biggest'". Stuff.co.nz. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Court Orders Australia-based Leader of International Spam Network to Pay $15.15 Million ^ ^ , Sources Specter, Michael (2007-08-06). "drat Spam". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2007-08-02.Further reading Sjouwerman, Stu; Posluns, Jeffrey, "Inside the spam cartel: trade secrets from the dark side", Elsevier/Syngress; 1st edition, November 27, 2004. ISBN 978-1-932266-86-3 Brown, Bruce Cameron "How to stop e-mail spam, spyware, malware, computer viruses, and hackers from ruining your computer" Atlantic Publishing Group, 2011. ISBN 978-1-601383-03-7 Dunne, Robert "Computers and the law: an introduction to basic legal principles and their application in cyberspace" Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-521886-50-5External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Electronic spam Spamtrackers SpamWiki: a peer-reviewed spam information and analysis resource. Federal Trade Commission page with spam reduction tips and reporting Slamming Spamming Resource on Spam Why am I getting all this spam? CDT Cybertelecom:: Federal spam law and policy Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 Overview and text of the first known internet email spam. Malware City - The Spam Omelette BitDefenders weekly report on spam trends and techniques. 1 December 2009: arrest of a major spammer Anti-Spam Consumer Resources and Information[hide] v t eSpammingProtocols Email spam Address munging Bulk email software Directory Harvest Attack Joe job DNSBL DNSWL Spambot Pink contractOther Autodialer/Robocall Flyposting Junk fax Messaging Mobile phone Newsgroup Telemarketing VoIPAnti-spam Disposable email address Email authentication SORBS SpamCop Spamhaus List poisoning Bayesian spam filtering Network Abuse ClearinghouseSpamdexing Keyword stuffing Google bomb Scraper site Link farm Cloaking Doorway page URL redirection Spam blogs Sping Forum spam Blog spam Social networking spam Referrer spam Parasite hostingInternet fraud Advance-fee fraud Lottery scam Make Money Fast Phishing VishingSpam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second de
Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second definition to its entry for "spam": "Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users."[23]There are several popular false etymologies of the word "spam". One, promulgated by early spammers Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, is that "spamming" is what happens when one dumps a can of Spam luncheon meat into a fan blade.[citation needed] Another is the backronym stupid pointless annoying messages".[citation needed] There was also an effort to differentiate between types of spam. That which was sent indiscriminately to any e-mail address was true spam while that which was targeted to more likely prospects, although just as unsolicited, was called velveeta (after the cheese product). But this latter term didn't persist.History of Internet spamThe earliest dofoamented spam (although the term had not yet been coined[24]) was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.[21] Rather than send a separate message to each person, which was the standard practice at the time, he had an rear endistant, Carl Gartley, write a single mrear end e-mail. Reaction from the net community was fiercely negative, but the spam did generate some sales.[25][26]Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.[26] The first known electronic chain letter, pillowled Make Money Fast, was released in 1988.The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. The incident was commonly termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Defiant in the face of widespread condemnation, the attorneys claimed their detractors were hypocrites or "zealouts", claimed they had a free speech right to send unwanted commercial messages, and labeled their opponents "anti-commerce radicals." The couple wrote a controversial book enpillowled How to Make a Fortune on the Information Superhighway.[26]Within a few years, the focus of spamming (and anti-spam efforts) moved chiefly to e-mail, where it remains today.[18] Arguably, the aggressive email spamming by a number of high-profile spammers such as Sanford Wallace of Cyber Promotions in the mid-to-late 1990s contributed to making spam predominantly an email phenomenon in the public mind.[citation needed] By 2009, the majority of spam sent around the world was in the English language; spammers began using automatic translation services to send spam in other languages.[27]Trademark issuesHormel Foods Corporation, the maker of SPAM luncheon meat, does not object to the Internet use of the term "spamming". However, they did ask that the capitalized word "Spam" be reserved to refer to their product and trademark.[28] By and large, this request is obeyed in forums which discuss spam. In Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Hormel attempted to rear endert its trademark rights against SpamArrest, a software company, from using the mark "spam", since Hormel owns the trademark. In a dilution claim, Hormel argued that Spam Arrest's use of the term "spam" had endangered and damaged "substantial goodwill and good reputation" in connection with its trademarked lunch meat and related products. Hormel also rear enderts that Spam Arrest's name so closely resembles its luncheon meat that the public might become confused, or might think that Hormel endorses Spam Arrest's products.Hormel did not prevail. Attorney Derek Newman responded on behalf of Spam Arrest: "Spam has become ubiquitous throughout the world to describe unsolicited commercial e-mail. No company can claim trademark rights on a generic term." Hormel stated on its website: "Ultimately, we are trying to avoid the day when the consuming public asks, 'Why would Hormel Foods name its product after junk email?".[29]Hormel also made two attempts that were dismissed in 2005 to revoke the marks "SPAMBUSTER"[30] and Spam Cube.[31] Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann also sent SpamCop's Julian Haight a letter on August 27, 1999 requesting that he delete an objectionable image (a can of Hormel's Spam luncheon meat product in a trash can), change references to UCE spam to all lower case letters, and confirm his agreement to do so.[32]Cost-benefit analysesThe European Union's Internal Market Commission estimated in 2001 that "junk e-mail" cost Internet users 10 billion per year worldwide.[33] The California legislature found that spam cost United States organizations alone more than $13 billion in 2007, including lost productivity and the additional equipment, software, and manpower needed to combat the problem.[34] Spam's direct effects include the consumption of computer and network resources, and the cost in human time and attention of dismissing unwanted messages.[35] Large companies who are frequent spam targets utilize numerous techniques to detect and prevent spam.[36]In addition, spam has costs stemming from the kinds of spam messages sent, from the ways spammers send them, and from the arms race between spammers and those who try to stop or control spam. In addition, there are the opportunity cost of those who forgo the use of spam-afflicted systems. There are the direct costs, as well as the indirect costs borne by the victimsboth those related to the spamming itself, and to other crimes that usually accompany it, such as financial theft, idenpillowy theft, data and intellectual property theft, virus and other malware infection, child pornography, fraud, and deceptive marketing.The cost to providers of search engines is not insignificant: "The secondary consequence of spamming is that search engine indexes are inundated with useless pages, increasing the cost of each processed query".[2] The methods of spammers are likewise costly. Because spamming contravenes the vast majority of ISPs' acceptable-use policies, most spammers have for many years gone to some trouble to conceal the origins of their spam. E-mail, Usenet, and instant-message spam are often sent through insecure proxy servers belonging to unwilling third parties. Spammers frequently use false names, addresses, phone numbers, and other contact information to set up "disposable" accounts at various Internet service providers. In some cases, they have used falsified or stolen credit card numbers to pay for these accounts. This allows them to quickly move from one account to the next as each one is discovered and shut down by the host ISPs.The costs of spam also include the collateral costs of the struggle between spammers and the administrators and users of the media threatened by spamming.[37] Many users are bothered by spam because it impinges upon the amount of time they spend reading their e-mail. Many also find the content of spam frequently offensive, in that pornography is one of the most frequently advertised products. Spammers send their spam largely indiscriminately, so pornographic ads may show up in a work place e-mail inboxor a child's, the latter of which is illegal in many jurisdictions. Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in spam advertising websites that contain child pornography.[citation needed]Some spammers argue that most of these costs could potentially be alleviated by having spammers reimburse ISPs and persons for their material.[citation needed] There are three problems with this logic: first, the rate of reimbursement they could credibly budget is not nearly high enough to pay the direct costs[citation needed], second, the human cost (lost mail, lost time, and lost opportunities) is basically unrecoverable, and third, spammers often use stolen bank accounts and credit cards to finance their operations, and would conceivably do so to pay off any fines imposed.E-mail spam exemplifies a tragedy of the commons: spammers use resources (both physical and human), without bearing the entire cost of those resources. In fact, spammers commonly do not bear the cost at all. This raises the costs for everyone. In some ways spam is even a potential threat to the entire e-mail system, as operated in the past. Since e-mail is so cheap to send, a tiny number of spammers can saturate the Internet with junk mail. Although only a tiny percentage of their targets are motivated to purchase their products (or fall victim to their scams), the low cost may provide a sufficient conversion rate to keep the spamming alive. Furthermore, even though spam appears not to be economically viable as a way for a reputable company to do business, it suffices for professional spammers to convince a tiny proportion of gullible advertisers that it is viable for those spammers to stay in business. Finally, new spammers go into business every day, and the low costs allow a single spammer to do a lot of harm before finally realizing that the business is not profitable.Some companies and groups "rank" spammers; spammers who make the news are sometimes referred to by these rankings.[38][39] The secretive nature of spamming operations makes it difficult to determine how proliferated an individual spammer is, thus making the spammer hard to track, block or avoid. Also, spammers may target different networks to different extents, depending on how successful they are at attacking the target. Thus considerable resources are employed to actually measure the amount of spam generated by a single person or group. For example, victims that use common anti-spam hardware, software or services provide opportunities for such tracking. Nevertheless, such rankings should be taken with a grain of salt.General costsIn all cases listed above, including both commercial and non-commercial, "spam happens" because of a positive cost-benefit analysis result if the cost to recipients is excluded as an externality the spammer can avoid paying.Cost is the combination of Overhead: The costs and overhead of electronic spamming include bandwidth, developing or acquiring an email/wiki/blog spam tool, taking over or acquiring a host/zombie, etc. Transaction cost: The incremental cost of contacting each additional recipient once a method of spamming is constructed, multiplied by the number of recipients. (see CAPTCHA as a method of increasing transaction costs) Risks: Chance and severity of legal and/or public reactions, including damages and punitive damages Damage: Impact on the community and/or communication channels being spammed (see Newsgroup spam)Benefit is the total expected profit from spam, which may include any combination of the commercial and non-commercial reasons listed above. It is normally linear, based on the incremental benefit of reaching each additional spam recipient, combined with the conversion rate. The conversion rate for botnet-generated spam has recently been measured to be around one in 12,000,000 for pharmaceutical spam and one in 200,000 for infection sites as used by the Storm botnet.[40] They specifically say in the paper "After 26 days, and almost 350 million e-mail messages, only 28 sales resulted".In crimeSpam can be used to spread computer viruses, trojan horses or other malicious software. The objective may be idenpillowy theft, or worse (e.g., advance fee fraud). Some spam attempts to capitalize on human greed whilst other attempts to use the victims' inexperience with computer technology to trick them (e.g., phishing). On May 31, 2007, one of the world's most prolific spammers, Robert Alan Soloway, was arrested by U.S. authorities.[41] Described as one of the top ten spammers in the world, Soloway was charged with 35 criminal counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, e-mail fraud, aggravated idenpillowy theft and money laundering.[41] Prosecutors allege that Soloway used millions of "zombie" computers to distribute spam during 2003.[citation needed] This is the first case in which U.S. prosecutors used idenpillowy theft laws to prosecute a spammer for taking over someone else's Internet domain name.[citation needed]In an attempt to rear endess potential legal and technical strategies for stopping illegal spam, a study from the University of California, San Diego, and the University of California, Berkeley, Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain (PDF), cataloged three months of online spam data and researched website naming and hosting infrastructures. The study concluded that: 1) half of all spam programs have their domains and servers distributed over just 8% or fewer of the total available hosting registrars and Autonomous Systems. Overall, 80% of spam programs are distributed over just 20% of all registrars and Autonomous Systems; 2) of the 76 purchases for which the researchers received transaction information, there were only 13 distinct banks acting as credit card acquirers and only three banks provided the payment servicing for 95% of the spam-advertised goods in the study; and, 3) a financial blacklist of banking enpillowies that do business with spammers would dramatically reduce monetization of unwanted emails. Moreover, this blacklist could be updated far more rapidly than spammers could acquire new banking resources, an asymmetry favoring anti-spam efforts.[42]Political issuesSpamming remains a hot discussion topic. In 2004, the seized Porsche of an indicted spammer was advertised on the Internet;[43] this revealed the extent of the financial rewards available to those who are willing to commit duplicitous acts online. However, some of the possible means used to stop spamming may lead to other side effects, such as increased government control over the Internet, loss of privacy, barriers to free expression, and the commercialization of e-mail.[citation needed]One of the chief values favored by many long-time Internet users and experts, as well as by many members of the public, is the free exchange of ideas. Many have valued the relative anarchy of the Internet, and bridle at the idea of restrictions placed upon it.[citation needed] A common refrain from spam-fighters is that spamming itself abridges the historical freedom of the Internet, by attempting to force users to carry the costs of material which they would not choose.[citation needed]An ongoing concern expressed by parties such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union has to do with so-called "stealth blocking", a term for ISPs employing aggressive spam blocking without their users' knowledge. These groups' concern is that ISPs or technicians seeking to reduce spam-related costs may select tools which (either through error or design) also block non-spam e-mail from sites seen as "spam-friendly". Spam Prevention Early Warning System (SPEWS) is a common target of these criticisms. Few object to the existence of these tools; it is their use in filtering the mail of users who are not informed of their use which draws fire.[citation needed]Some see spam-blocking tools as a threat to free expressionand laws against spamming as an untoward precedent for regulation or taxation of e-mail and the Internet at large. Even though it is possible in some jurisdictions to treat some spam as unlawful merely by applying existing laws against tresprear end and conversion, some laws specifically targeting spam have been proposed. In 2004, United States prear ended the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 which provided ISPs with tools to combat spam. This act allowed Yahoo! to successfully sue Eric Head, reportedly one of the biggest spammers in the world, who settled the lawsuit for several thousand U.S. dollars in June 2004. But the law is criticized by many for not being effective enough. Indeed, the law was supported by some spammers and organizations which support spamming, and opposed by many in the anti-spam community. Examples of effective anti-abuse laws that respect free speech rights include those in the U.S. against unsolicited faxes and phone calls, and those in Australia and a few U.S. states against spam.[citation needed]In November 2004, Lycos Europe released a screen saver called make LOVE not SPAM which made Distributed Denial of Service attacks on the spammers themselves. It met with a large amount of controversy and the initiative ended in December 2004.[44][45][46]Anti-spam policies may also be a form of disguised censorship, a way to ban access or reference to questioning alternative forums or blogs by an inspillowution. This form of occult censorship is mainly used by private companies when they can not muzzle criticism by legal ways.[47]Court casesSee also: E-mail spam legislation by countryUnited StatesSanford Wallace and Cyber Promotions were the target of a string of lawsuits, many of which were settled out of court, up through the famous 1998 Earthlink settlement[citation needed]which put Cyber Promotions out of business. Attorney Laurence Canter was disbarred by the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1997 for sending prodigious amounts of spam advertising his immigration law practice. In 2005, Jason Smathers, a former America Online employee, pled guilty to charges of violating the CAN-SPAM Act. In 2003, he sold a list of approximately 93 million AOL subscriber e-mail addresses to Sean Dunaway who, in turn, sold the list to spammers.[48][49]In 2007, Robert Soloway lost a case in a federal court against the operator of a small Oklahoma-based Internet service provider who accused him of spamming. U.S. Judge Ralph G. Thompson granted a motion by plaintiff Robert Braver for a default judgment and permanent injunction against him. The judgment includes a statutory damages award of $10,075,000 under Oklahoma law.[50]In June 2007, two men were convicted of eight counts stemming from sending millions of e-mail spam messages that included hardcore pornographic images. Jeffrey A. Kilbride, 41, of Venice, California was sentenced to six years in prison, and James R. Schaffer, 41, of Paradise Valley, Arizona, was sentenced to 63 months. In addition, the two were fined $100,000, ordered to pay $77,500 in respillowution to AOL, and ordered to forfeit more than $1.1 million, the amount of illegal proceeds from their spamming operation.[51] The charges included conspiracy, fraud, money laundering, and transportation of obscene materials. The trial, which began on June 5, was the first to include charges under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, according to a release from the Department of Justice. The specific law that prosecutors used under the CAN-Spam Act was designed to crack down on the transmission of pornography in spam.[52]In 2005, Scott J. Filary and Donald E. Townsend of Tampa, Florida were sued by Florida Attorney General Charlie Crist for violating the Florida Electronic Mail Communications Act.[53] The two spammers were required to pay $50,000 USD to cover the costs of investigation by the state of Florida, and a $1.1 million penalty if spamming were to continue, the $50,000 was not paid, or the financial statements provided were found to be inaccurate. The spamming operation was successfully shut down.[54]Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million "Nigerian check scam." She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, last November. Fiedler shipped out $ 609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $ 1.1 million counterfeit materials. Also, the U.S. Postal Service recently intercepted counterfeit checks, lottery tickets and eBay overpayment schemes with a face value of $2.1 billion.[55][56]In a 2009 opinion, Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040, the Ninth Circuit rear endessed the standing requirements necessary for a private plaintiff to bring a civil cause of action against spam senders under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, as well as the scope of the CAN-SPAM Act's federal preemption clause.[57]United KingdomIn the first successful case of its kind, Nigel Roberts from the Channel Islands won 270 against Media Logistics UK who sent junk e-mails to his personal account.[58]In January 2007, a Sheriff Court in Scotland awarded Mr. Gordon dog 750 (the then maximum sum which could be awarded in a Small Claim action) plus expenses of 618.66, a total of 1368.66 against Transcom Internet Services Ltd.[59] for breaching anti-spam laws.[60] Transcom had been legally represented at earlier hearings but were not represented at the proof, so Gordon dog got his decree by default. It is the largest amount awarded in compensation in the United Kingdom since Roberts -v- Media Logistics case in 2005 above, but it is not known if Mr. dog ever received anything. (An image of Media Logistics' cheque is shown on Roberts' website[61] ) Both Roberts and dog are well known figures in the British Internet industry for other things. dog is currently Interim Chairman of Nominet UK (the manager of .UK and .CO.UK) while Roberts is CEO of CHANNELISLES.NET (manager of .GG and .JE).Despite the statutory tort that is created by the Regulations implementing the EC Directive, few other people have followed their example. As the Courts engage in active case management, such cases would probably now be expected to be settled by mediation and payment of nominal damages.New ZealandIn October 2008, a vast international internet spam operation run from New Zealand was cited by American authorities as one of the worlds largest, and for a time responsible for up to a third of all unwanted emails. In a statement the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) named Christchurchs Lance Atkinson as one of the principals of the operation. New Zealands Internal Affairs announced it had lodged a $200,000 claim in the High Court against Atkinson and his brother Shane Atkinson and courier Roland Smits, after raids in Christchurch. This marked the first prosecution since the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act (UEMA) was prear ended in September 2007. The FTC said it had received more than three million complaints about spam messages connected to this operation, and estimated that it may be responsible for sending billions of illegal spam messages. The US District Court froze the defendants rear endets to preserve them for consumer redress pending trial.[62] U.S. co-defendant Jody Smith forfeited more than $800,000 and faces up to five years in prison for charges to which he pled guilty.[63]BulgariaWhile most countries either outlaw or at least ignore spam, Bulgaria is the first and until now only one to legalize it. According to the Bulgarian E-Commerce act[64] (.5,6) anyone can send spam to mailboxes published as owned by a company or organization, as long as there is a "clear and straight indication that the message is unsolicited commercial email" (" ") in the message body.This made lawsuits against Bulgarian ISP's and public e-mail providers with antispam policy possible, as they are obstructing legal commerce activity and thus violate Bulgarian anpillowrust acts. While there are no such lawsuits until now, several cases of spam obstruction are currently awaiting decision in the Bulgarian Anpillowrust Commission ( ) and can end with serious fines for the ISP's in question.The law contains other dubious provisions for example, the creation of a nationwide public electronic register of email addresses that do not want to receive spam.[65] It is usually abused as the perfect source for e-mail address harvesting, because publishing invalid or incorrect information in such a register is a criminal offense in Bulgaria.Newsgroups news.admin.net-abuse.emailSee alsoPortal icon Internet portal Address munging (avoidance technique) Advance fee fraud (Nigerian spam) Anti-spam techniques Bacn E-mail fraud Idenpillowy theft Image spam Internet Troll Job scams Junk mail Junk Mail Publishing List of spammers Suppression list Malware Network Abuse Clearinghouse Phishing Scam Scad (scam ad) Social networking spam Social spam SORBS Spam Spam Lit SpamCop Spamhaus Spamigation SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) Spoetry Sporgery Virus (computer) VishingHistory Howard Carmack Make money fast Sanford Wallace Spam King Usenet Death Penalty UUnetReferencesNotes ^ The Spamhaus Project - The Definition Of Spam ^ a b Gyongyi, Zoltan; Garcia-Molina, Hector (2005). "Web spam taxonomy". Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb), 2005 in The 14th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2005) May 10, (Tue)-14 (Sat), 2005, Nippon Convention Center (Makuhari Messe), Chiba, Japan.. New York, N.Y.: ACM Press. ISBN 1-59593-046-9 ^ "?". maawg.org. ^ FileOn List Builder-Extract URL,MetaTags,Email,Phone,Fax from www-Optimized Webcrawler ^ Saul Hansell Social network launches worldwide spam campaign New York Times, September 13, 2007 ^ "Marketers need to build trust as spam hits social networks", Grace Bello, Direct Marketing News, June 1, 2012 ^ Understanding and Combating Link Farming in the Twitter Social Network, Max Planck Centre for Computer Science ^ The (Evil) Genius of Comment Spammers - Wired Magazine, March 2004 ^ "New Moon Full Movie Available Online Scam - Softpedia". Softpedia. Retrieved 8 September 2012. ^ Fabrcio Benevenuto, Tiago Rodrigues, Virglio Almeida, Jussara Almeida and Marcos Gonalves. Detecting Spammers and Content Promoters in Online Video Social Networks. In ACM SIGIR Conference, Boston, MA, USA, July 2009.[dead link]. ^ "Toy Story 3 movie scam warning". Retrieved 23 January 2012. ^ a b Joeran Beel and Bela Gipp. Academic search engine spam and google scholars resilience against it. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(3), December 2010. PDF ^ See: Advance fee fraud ^ Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report (PDF) ^ "Getting the message, at last". The Economist. 2007-12-14. ^ "RFC 2635 - DON\x27T SPEW A Set of Guidelines for Mrear end Unsolicited Mailings and Postings (spam*):". Retrieved 2010-09-29. ^ "The Origin of the word 'Spam':". Retrieved 2010-09-20. ^ a b Origin of the term "spam" to mean net abuse ^ The Origins of Spam in Star Trek chat rooms ^ Spamming? (rec.games.mud) - Google Groups USENET archive, 1990-09-26 ^ a b At 30, Spam Going Nowhere Soon - Interviews with Gary Thuerk and Joel Furr ^ Darren Waters (31 march 2008). "Spam blights e-mail 15 years on". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2010. ^ "Oxford dictionary adds Net terms" on News.com ^ Zeller, Tom (1 June 2003). "Ideas & Trends; Spamology". The New York Times. ^ Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 ^ a b c Tom Abate (May 3, 2008). "A very unhappy birthday to spam, age 30". San Francisco Chronicle. ^ Danchev, Dancho. "Spammers go multilingual, use automatic translation services." ZDNet. July 28, 2009. Retrieved on August 31, 2009. ^ "SPAM Brand and the Internet". spam.com. Retrieved 7 June 2012. ^ Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Motion for Summary Judgment, Redacted Version (PDF) ^ Hormel Foods Corpn v Antilles Landscape Investments NV (2005) EWHC 13 (Ch)[dead link] ^ "Hormel Foods Corporation v. Spam Cube, Inc". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2008-02-12. ^ Letter from Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann to SpamCop's Julian Haight ^ "Data protection: "Junk" e-mail costs internet users 10 billion a year worldwide - Commission study" ^ California business and professions code ^ Spam Cost Calculator: Calculate enterprise spam cost? ^ Shuman Ghosemajumder (18 March 2008). "Using data to help prevent fraud". Google Blog. Retrieved 12 August 2011. ^ Thank the Spammers - William R. James 2003-03-10 ^ Spamhaus' "TOP 10 spam service ISPs" ^ The 10 Worst ROKSO Spammers ^ Kanich, C.; C. Kreibich, K. Levchenko, B. Enright, G. Voelker, V. Paxson and S. Savage (2008-10-28). "Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion" (PDF). Proceedings of Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS). Alexandria, VA, USA. Retrieved 2008-11-05. ^ a b Alleged 'Seattle Spammer' arrested - CNET News.com ^ "Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain". Journalist's Resource.org. ^ timewarner.com ^ Screensaver tackles spam websites BBC News Online. 29 November 2004 ^ Anti-spam plan overwhelms sites BBC News Online. 2 December 2004 ^ Anti-spam screensaver scrapped BBC News Online. 6 December 2004 ^ See for instance the black list of the French Wikipedia encyclopedia ^ U.S. v Jason Smathers and Sean Dunaway, amended complaint, US District Court for the Southern District of New York (2003). Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "?". thesmokinggun.com. ^ Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case. (2005, February 4). CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case". CNN.com. February 5, 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2010. ^ Braver v. Newport Internet Marketing Corporation et al. -U.S. District Court - Western District of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City), 2005-02-22 ^ "Two Men Sentenced for Running International Pornographic Spamming Business". United States Department of Justice. October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-25. ^ Gaudin, Sharon, Two Men Convicted Of Spamming Pornography InformationWeek, June 26, 2007 ^ "Crist Announces First Case Under Florida Anti-Spam Law". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Crist: Judgment Ends Duo's Illegal Spam, Internet Operations". Office of the Florida Attorney General. Retrieved 2008-02-23. ^ "Woman gets prison for 'Nigerian' scam". upi.com. ^ "Woman Gets Two Years for Aiding Nigerian Internet Check Scam (PC World)". yahoo.com.[dead link] ^ Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040 (9th Cir. 2009). ^ "Businessman wins e-mail spam case". BBC News. 27 December 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Gordon dog v Transcom Internet Service Ltd. ^ Article 13-Unsolicited communications ^ website ^ "Kiwi spam network was 'world's biggest'". Stuff.co.nz. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2011. ^ Court Orders Australia-based Leader of International Spam Network to Pay $15.15 Million ^ ^ , Sources Specter, Michael (2007-08-06). "drat Spam". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2007-08-02.Further reading Sjouwerman, Stu; Posluns, Jeffrey, "Inside the spam cartel: trade secrets from the dark side", Elsevier/Syngress; 1st edition, November 27, 2004. ISBN 978-1-932266-86-3 Brown, Bruce Cameron "How to stop e-mail spam, spyware, malware, computer viruses, and hackers from ruining your computer" Atlantic Publishing Group, 2011. ISBN 978-1-601383-03-7 Dunne, Robert "Computers and the law: an introduction to basic legal principles and their application in cyberspace" Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-521886-50-5External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Electronic spam Spamtrackers SpamWiki: a peer-reviewed spam information and analysis resource. Federal Trade Commission page with spam reduction tips and reporting Slamming Spamming Resource on Spam Why am I getting all this spam? CDT Cybertelecom:: Federal spam law and policy Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 Overview and text of the first known internet email spam. Malware City - The Spam Omelette BitDefenders weekly report on spam trends and techniques. 1 December 2009: arrest of a major spammer Anti-Spam Consumer Resources and Information[hide] v t eSpammingProtocols Email spam Address munging Bulk email software Directory Harvest Attack Joe job DNSBL DNSWL Spambot Pink contractOther Autodialer/Robocall Flyposting Junk fax Messaging Mobile phone Newsgroup Telemarketing VoIPAnti-spam Disposable email address Email authentication SORBS SpamCop Spamhaus List poisoning Bayesian spam filtering Network Abuse ClearinghouseSpamdexing Keyword stuffing Google bomb Scraper site Link farm Cloaking Doorway page URL redirection Spam blogs Sping Forum spam Blog spam Social networking spam Referrer spam Parasite hostingInternet fraud Advance-fee fraud Lottery scam Make Money Fast Phishing VishingSpam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online clrear endified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam. It is named for Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is included in almost every dish.Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mrear end mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. In the year 2011, the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.[2]Contents 1 In different media 1.1 Email 1.2 Instant messaging 1.3 Newsgroup and forum 1.4 Mobile phone 1.5 Social networking spam 1.6 Social spam 1.7 Online game messaging 1.8 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing) 1.9 Blog, wiki, and guestbook 1.10 Spam targeting video sharing sites 1.11 SPIT 1.12 Academic Search 2 Noncommercial forms 3 Geographical origins 4 History 4.1 Pre-Internet 4.2 Etymology 4.3 History of Internet spam 5 Trademark issues 6 Cost-benefit analyses 6.1 General costs 7 In crime 8 Political issues 9 Court cases 9.1 United States 9.2 United Kingdom 9.3 New Zealand 9.4 Bulgaria 10 Newsgroups 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksIn different mediaEmailMain article: Email spamEmail spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quanpillowies to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make email spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.Increasingly, email spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe. Many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer to access the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't obviously originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]Instant messagingMain article: Messaging spamInstant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers. This is very common on many instant messaging systems such as Skype.Newsgroup and forumMain article: Newsgroup spamNewsgroup spam's a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".Main article: Forum spamForum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly compepillowive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's idenpillowy; if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.Mobile phoneMain article: Mobile phone spamMobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations, now SMS messages have to have the options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertising spam altogether.Social networking spamMain article: Social networking spamFacebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Most insidiously, spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[6] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer and allows him or her to proliferate.[7]Social spamSpreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites. Well-meaning and malicious human users can break websites' policies by submitting profanity, insults, hate speech, and violent messages.Online game messagingMany online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency.Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)Main article: SpamdexingSpamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.Blog, wiki, and guestbookMain article: Spam in blogsBlog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[8] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.Spam targeting video sharing sitesScreenshot from a spam video on Youtube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible, and the deletion notification would look different).Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a loveually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mrear end-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repepillowive comments.Yet another kind is actual video spam[9], giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen or an ISO file for a video game, or similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[10] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a prear endworded archive file, or in extreme cases, malware.[11] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not prear end the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.SPITSPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony) is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).Academic SearchAcademic Search Engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating performance metrics such as the H-index and impact factor. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar, are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[12] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[12]Noncommercial formsE-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[13]Geographical originsA 2011 Cisco Systems report shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[14]Rank Country Percentage of spam volume1 India 13.92 Russia 9.03 Vietnam 7.94 (tie) South Korea 6.04 (tie) Indonesia 6.06 China 4.77 Brazil 4.58 United States 3.2HistoryPre-InternetIn the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mrear end unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[15] Up until the Great Depression, wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.EtymologyAccording to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[16] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[17] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly a brand of tinned ham (Spiced ham = SPAM) from the USA, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic clrear endes and became a byword among British children of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price hence the humour of the Python sketch.In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[18] In early chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 bit/s, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chattingfor instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[19] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[20] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple postingthe repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[21] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[22] This use had also become establishedto spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second de
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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2010)Author and activist Bob Wood places one of his numerous phone calls to residents in Muskegon County, Michigan.Telemarketing (sometimes known as inside sales,[1] or telesales in the UK and Ireland) is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson solicits prospective customers to buy products or services, either over the phone or through a subsequent face to face or Web conferencing appointment scheduled during the call.Telemarketing can also include recorded sales pitches programmed to be played over the phone via automatic dialing. Telemarketing has come under fire in recent years, being viewed as an annoyance by many.Contents 1 History 2 Categories 2.1 Subcategories 3 Procedure 4 Negative perceptions and criticism 5 Regulations 5.1 United States of America 5.2 Canada 5.3 Australia 6 Technology 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistoryThe term telemarketing was first used extensively in the late 1970s to describe Bell System communications which related to new uses for the outbound WATS and inbound Toll-free services.CategoriesThe two major categories of telemarketing are Business-to-business and Business-to-consumer.Subcategories Lead Generation, the gathering of information and contacts Sales, using persuasion to sell a product or service Outbound, proactive marketing in which prospective and preexisting customers are contacted directly Inbound, reception of incoming orders and requests for information. Demand is generally created by advertising, publicity, or the efforts of outside salespeople.Telemarketing officeProcedureTelemarketing may be done from a company office, from a call centre, or from home. It may involve either a live operator or a recorded message, in which case it is known as "automated telemarketing" using voice broadcasting. "Robocalling" is a form of voice broadcasting which is most frequently rear endociated with political messages.An effective telemarketing process often involves two or more calls. The first call (or series of calls) determines the customers needs. The final call (or series of calls) motivates the customer to make a purchase.Prospective customers are identified by various means, including past purchase history, previous requests for information, credit limit, compepillowion entry forms, and application forms. Names may also be purchased from another company's consumer database or obtained from a telephone directory or another public list. The qualification process is intended to determine which customers are most likely to purchase the product or service.Charitable organizations, alumni rear endociations, and political parties often use telemarketing to solicit donations. Marketing research companies use telemarketing techniques to survey the prospective or past customers of a clients business in order to rear endess market acceptance of or satisfaction with a particular product, service, brand, or company. Public opinion polls are conducted in a similar manner.Telemarketing techniques are also applied to other forms of electronic marketing using e-mail or fax messages, in which case they are frequently considered spam by receivers.Telemarketing agent sitting in a cubicle. The brightly colored reendal sheets are used to answer most questions a customer might have.Negative perceptions and criticismSee also: Telemarketing fraudTelemarketing has been negatively rear endociated with various scams and frauds, such as pyramid schemes, and with deceptively overpriced products and services. Fraudulent telemarketing companies are frequently referred to as "telemarketing boiler rooms" or simply "boiler rooms". Telemarketing is often criticized as an unethical business practice due to the perception of high-pressure sales techniques during unsolicited calls. Telemarketers marketing telephone companies may participate in telephone slamming, the practice of switching a customer's telephone service without their knowledge or authorization.Telemarketing calls are often considered an annoyance, especially when they occur during the dinner hour, early in the morning, or late in the evening. Another, potentially serious side-effect of "nuisance" telemarketer calling is that it prompts some exasperated people to begin only answering calls from numbers that they actually recognize on their caller-ID displays, preventing emergency calls and calls from loved ones using pay-phones or someone else's phone from getting through, as well as other legitimate calls made by "unknown but honest" persons who are calling for the first time, such as new acquaintances or responders to a clrear endifieds ad.Some companies have capitalized on these negative emotions. Since 2007 several forums have sprouted and act as complaint boards where consumers can voice their concerns and criticism. In response some telemarketing companies have filed law suits against these portals[2][3][4]. The current legal system in the U.S grants such forums a certain degree of protection through "Communications Decency Act, 47 U.S.C 230" and California's Anti-SLAPP law.A recent trend in telemarketing is to use robocalls: automated telephone calls that use both computerized autodialers and computer-delivered pre-recorded messages in a sales pitch. These often include intentionally deceptive tactics, with computer recorded messages saying things like "Don't panic but this is your final notice" or "We have already attempted to contact you through the mail." These messages are often outright lies, intended to incite concern or fear in the potential customer.Robocalls are known for failing to add numbers to their do-not-call list and repeatedly interrupting individuals at all hours of the day.RegulationsGnome globe current event.svgThis article is outdated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2010)In some countries telemarketing is subject to regulatory and legislative controls related to consumer privacy and protection.United States of AmericaIt is not known exactly when, or possibly if telemarketing officially became legal in the United States of America. Telemarketing in the United States of America is restricted at the federal level by the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 (TCPA) (47 U.S.C. 227) and the FTC's Telemarketing Sales Rule (TSR). The FCC derives regulatory authority from the TCPA, adopted as CFR 64.1200 and the Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act, 15 U.S.C. 6101-6108.[5] Many professional rear endociations of telemarketers have codes of ethics and standards that member businesses follow to encourage public confidence.Some jurisdictions have implemented "Do Not Call" lists through industry organizations or legislation; telemarketers are restricted from initiating contact with participating consumers. Legislative versions often provide for heavy penalties on companies which call individuals on these listings. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission has implemented a National Do Not Call Registry in an attempt to reduce intrusive telemarketing nationwide. Telemarketing corporations and trade groups challenged this as a violation of commercial speech rights.[6] However, the U.S. 10th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the National Do Not Call Registry on February 17, 2004.[7]Companies that use telemarketing as a sales tool are governed by the United States Federal regulations outlined in the TSR (amended on January 29, 2003 originally issued in 1995) and the TCPA. In addition to these Federal regulations, telemarketers calling nationally must also adhere to separate state regulations. Most states have adapted "do not call" files of their own, of which only some states share with the U.S. Federal Do Not Call registry. Each U.S. state also has its own regulations concerning: permission to record, permission to continue, no reendaling statutes, Sunday and Holiday calls; as well as the fines and punishments exacted for violations. September 1, 2009, FTC regulations banning most robocall went into effect.Telemarketing techniques are increasingly used in political campaigns. Because of free-speech issues, the laws governing political phone calls are much less stringent than those applying to commercial messages. Even so, a number of states have barred or restricted political robocalls.The National Do Not Call Registry has help to substantial curve telemarketing calls to landlines and has also helped with the increasing trend for telemarketer to target mobile phones. As a result there has been a greater push for mobile applications to help with unwanted calls from telemarketers, like PrivacyStar. These companies have helped to log thousands of complaints to the DNC Registry, since the inception of the registry itself. [8]CanadaMain article: Telemarketing in CanadaIn Canada, telemarketing is regulated by Federal Government, specifically handled by Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission.AustraliaTelemarketing in Australia is restricted by the Australian Federal Government and policed by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). Australian Federal legislation provides for a restriction in calling hours for both Research and Marketing calls.[9]In 2007 a Do Not Call Register was established for Australian inbound telephone numbers. The register allows a user to register private use telephone numbers. Australian Federal Legislation limits the types of marketing calls that can be made to these registered telephone numbers; however, research calls are allowed. Other exemptions include calls made by charities and political members, parties and candidates[10] however any organisation that is instructed by the recipient of a telemarketing call, not to call that number again, is legally obliged to comply, and must remove the phone number from the organisations calling list(s).Inbound telemarketing is another major industry[citation needed]. It involves both live operators and IVRInteractive Voice Response. IVR is also known as audiotext or automated call processing. Usually, major television campaigns and advertisers use toll-free telephone number that are answered by IVR service bureaus[citation needed]. Such service bureaus have the technology and call capacity to process the large amounts of simultaneous calls that occur when an toll-free telephone number is advertised on television[citation needed].Technology Autodialer Automatic call distributor Customer relationship management Predictive dialer Private Branch eXchange Teleblock Natural Predictive DialingSee also Boiler room (business) Call Centre Cold calling Direct marketing List of call centre companies Marketing Reloading scam Spamming Sucker list Telemarketing in Canada Natural Predictive DialingReferences ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B9HC9-4XM62FG-4&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F1991&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1484536889&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=da40b391f1250788db20338ac99b63fd&searchtype=a ^ public citizen ^ citmedialaw ^ techdirt ^ http://www.ftc.gov/os/2002/12/tsrfinalrule.pdf ^ Miller, Jacqui Brown. "Mainstream Marketing Services, et al. v. Federal Trade Commission: Resources and Legal Analysis." ReclaimDemocracy.org. January 20, 2004. ^ Text of the case and the decision. FindLaw. ^ Matt Brownell, The Street. "http://www.thestreet.com/print/story/11439016.html." March 1, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012. ^ Telecommunications (Do Not Call Register) (Telemarketing and Research Calls) Industry Standard 2007 ACMA. ^ Do Not Call Register FAQACMA FAQ.External links Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Telemarketing Federal Trade Commission Information about Telemarketing Rules and Scams File a Complaint to the Do Not Call Registry Federal Trade Commission Do Not Call Registry Laws Regulating Telemarketers List of State Do Not Call Lists s+new+measures+to+tackle+silent+calls Telephone Preference Service UK Do Not Call Registry Protect yourself from top telemarketing scams[show] v t eMedia manipulation[show] v t eSpammingView page ratingsRate this pageWhat's this?TrustworthyObjectiveCompleteWell-writtenI am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional)Categories: Spamming Telemarketing Direct marketing Promotion and marketing communications Marketing Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to WikipediaInteraction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact WikipediaToolboxPrint/exportLanguages Catal Deutsch Espaol Franais Italiano Magyar Nederlands norsk (bokml) Polski Portugus Romn Suomi Svenska Ting Vit This page was last modified on 22 September 2012 at 11:58. 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